Two-transaction Reconfiguration#

Next to one-transaction reconfiguration, CCF also supports two-transaction reconfiguration, which has properties that are particularly desirable when used with the (experimental) Byzantine Fault Tolerance consensus algorithm. It is however also available to CFT networks and in fact, Ongaro and Ousterhout also describe a two-transaction reconfiguration mechanism for Raft. In general, it helps to improve liveness and availability of a service as learner nodes (see below) are not expected to take part in the consensus until they are fully caught up with the primary, and because bad or misconfigured joining nodes can be removed by cancelling their reconfigurations before they take an active part in the consensus. The tools to automate these procedures are currently not available in CCF, however.

As a side note, two-transaction reconfiguration will likely become a requirement for distributed identity management, which is currently under research.

In BFT, the following properties are desirable:

  1. A reconfiguration only starts when the reconfiguration transaction is committed, so a reconfiguration attempt can never roll back.

  2. Reconfigurations are atomic. This creates room for additional conditions, such as checking that the Byzantine reconfiguration (a multiple transaction protocol) is complete before proceeding to the new configuration.

BFT is under development and should not be enabled in a production environment.

A two-transaction reconfiguration is triggered by the same mechanism as in one-transaction reconfiguration, i.e. a change to nodes.info. It does however not become active immediately. Joining nodes are held in a Learner membership state in which they receive copies of the ledger, but they are not taken into account in commit-level decisions or leader selection until a quorum of them has caught up. Nodes recognize that they are added to the network by observing the commit of the transaction that includes their own addition to public:ccf.gov.nodes.info. This means that they have seen all preceding transactions up until their addition to the network. Similary, nodes that are to be retired recognize that their state is changed to RetirementInitiated in public:ccf.gov.nodes.info.

All nodes in the new configuration (including learners) submit an Observed Reconfiguration Commit (ORC) RPC call to the current leader once they observe a reconfiguration that changes their state. This allows the leader to track how many of the nodes in the new configuration are aware of that configuration. Once the number of nodes in the next scheduled configuration reaches the required quorum of acknowledgements, the leader changes the state of all nodes of the new configuration that are in the Learner and RetirementInitiated membership states to Active and Retired respectively, in public:ccf.gov.nodes.info.

This sample illustrates the addition of a single node to a one-node network with two-transaction reconfiguration:

sequenceDiagram participant Members participant Node 0 participant Node 1 Note over Node 0: State in KV: TRUSTED Note over Node 1: State in KV: PENDING Note right of Node 0: Cfg 0: [Node 0] Note right of Node 0: Active configs: [Cfg 0] Members->>+Node 0: Vote for Node 1 to become LEARNER Note right of Node 0: Tx ID := 3.42 Note right of Node 0: Cfg 1 := [Node 0, Node 1] Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0] Node 0-->>-Members: Success Node 1->>+Node 0: Poll join Node 0-->>-Node 1: Learner Node 0->>Node 1: Replicate Tx ID 3.42 Note over Node 1: State in KV := LEARNER Node 1->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.42 Node 0->>Node 1: Notify commit 3.42 Node 1->>+Node 0: ORC for Node 1 Note over Node 0: Quorum reached. All nodes in Cfg 1: State in KV := TRUSTED Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0, Cfg 1] Node 0-->>-Node 1: Success @ Tx ID 3.43 Node 0->>Node 1: Replicate Tx ID 3.43 Note over Node 1: State in KV := TRUSTED Node 1->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.43 Note right of Node 0: Tx ID 3.43 commits (meets quorum in Cfg 0 and 1) Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 1]

The following example illustrates one possible execution of an addition of two nodes to a one-node network.

sequenceDiagram participant Members participant Node 0 participant Node 1 participant Node 2 Note over Node 0: State in KV: TRUSTED Note over Node 1: State in KV: PENDING Note over Node 2: State in KV: PENDING Note right of Node 0: Cfg 0: [Node 0] Note right of Node 0: Active configs: [Cfg 0] Members->>+Node 0: Vote for Nodes 1 and 2 to become LEARNER Note right of Node 0: Tx ID := 3.42 Note right of Node 0: Cfg 1 := [Node 0, Node 1, Node 2] Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0] Node 0-->>-Members: Success Node 1->>+Node 0: Poll join Node 0-->>-Node 1: Learner Node 2->>+Node 0: Poll join Node 0-->>-Node 2: Learner Node 0->>Node 1: Replicate Tx ID 3.42 Note over Node 1: State in KV := LEARNER Node 1->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.42 Node 0->>Node 2: Replicate Tx ID 3.42 Note over Node 2: State in KV := LEARNER Node 2->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.42 Node 0->>Node 1: Notify commit 3.42 Node 1->>+Node 0: ORC for Node 1 Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0] Node 0->>Node 2: Notify commit 3.42 Node 2->>+Node 0: ORC for Node 2 Note over Node 0: Quorum reached. All nodes in Cfg 1: State in KV := TRUSTED Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0, Cfg 1] Node 0-->>-Node 2: Success @ Tx ID 3.43 Node 0->>Node 1: Replicate Tx ID 3.43 Note over Node 1: State in KV := TRUSTED Node 1->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.43 Node 0->>Node 2: Replicate Tx ID 3.43 Note over Node 2: State in KV := TRUSTED Node 2->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.43 Note right of Node 0: Tx ID 3.43 commits (meets quorum in Cfg 0 and 1) Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 1]

Joining a small number of nodes to a large network will lead to almost-instant promotion of the joining node if both the existing and the new configuration have a sufficient number of nodes for quorums. Learners also help to improve the liveness of the system, because they do not necessarily have to receive the entire ledger from the leader immediately. Further, the two transactions on the ledger make it clear that the configuration change was not instant and it allows for other mechanisms to gate the switch to a new configuration on the committment to a number of other transactions on the ledger, for instance those required for the successful establishment of a Byzantine network identity.

The following diagram illustrates retirement of the leader:

sequenceDiagram participant Members participant Node 0 participant Node 1 Note over Node 0: State in KV: TRUSTED Note over Node 0: Leader Note over Node 1: State in KV: TRUSTED Note right of Node 0: Cfg 0: [Node 0, Node 1] Note right of Node 0: Active configs: [Cfg 0] Members->>+Node 0: Vote for Node 0 to become RETIRED Note right of Node 0: Tx ID := 3.42 Note right of Node 0: Cfg 1 := [Node 1] Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0] Node 0-->>-Members: Success @ Tx ID 3.42 Note over Node 0: State in KV := RETIRING Node 0->>Node 1: Replicate Tx ID 3.42 Node 1->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.42 Node 1->>+Node 0: ORC for Node 1 Note left of Node 0: Tx ID := 3.43 Note left of Node 0: (Quorum reached, all nodes in Cfg 1 are already TRUSTED) Note left of Node 0: All RETIRING nodes in Cfg 1: state in KV := RETIRED Note left of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0, Cfg 1] Node 0-->>-Node 1: Success @ Tx ID 3.43 Note over Node 0: State in KV := RETIRED Node 0->>Node 1: Replicate Tx ID 3.43 Node 1->>Node 0: Acknowledge Tx ID 3.43 Note right of Node 0: Active configs := [Cfg 0, Cfg 1] Note right of Node 0: Tx ID 3.43 commits (meets quorum in Cfg 0 and 1) Node 0->>Node 1: Notify commit 3.43 Note right of Node 1: Active configs := [Cfg 1] Note over Node 1: Leader

Retirement details#

Retirement of a node runs through the same four phases as in one-transaction reconfiguration upon the second reconfiguration transaction. Before that, upon the first reconfiguration transaction, the replica enters the additional RetirementInitiated mebership state as indicated in the following diagram:

graph TB; RetirementInitiated-- RTX commits -->Started subgraph Retired Started-- 2f+1 ORCs commit -->Ordered; Ordered[Ordered: RI set] Ordered-- Signature -->Signed; Signed[Signed: RCI set] Signed-- RCI commits -->Completed; Ordered-.->Started Signed-.->Ordered end