Plotting is a key part of the inner loop of the workflow for a data scientist. In RTVS, all plotting activity centers around one or more plot windows, and we’ve designed a number of features to improve your productivity in this key activity.
This page contains the documentation for the plotting features of RTVS. Below is a quick video overview of the plotting features:
A plot window holds a series of plots. Each plot is generated by a plot command. Here’s a simple example that plots a series of plots at (1,1), (2,2) … (100,100):
When the command runs, it creates a new R Plot window if one wasn’t created already.
If there was already a plot window, it will add the new plot to the series of plots in that existing plot window. For example, if you now execute the following command, you will now see a new plot replace the existing plot in the window:
When you run a new plot command, RTVS adds that command to your plot history. This ensures that all of your previous plots within a session are preserved. You can use the back and forward arrows (outlined in red) in the plot window toolbar to navigate the set of plots that were plotted in that window.
You can also click on the toolbar button to show the Plot History Window. This gives you a list of thumbnails of the plots in your session to help you quickly navigate back to a plot that you were interested in.
The Plot History window can also be resized. When you resize the window, it will show as many plots horizontally as will fit. You can also see that plots are grouped by Plot History window as well, which is helpful when you start creating more than one Plot Window (see the section on Multiple Plot Windows below).
The lifetime of your plot history is bound to the lifetime of your interactive R session. If you reset your R session, or exit and restart Visual Studio, your plot history will be reset.
You can also edit your plot history. You can remove the current plot from the
plot window (and its history) by clicking on the toolbar icon to remove the
plot. You can also right-click on any plot in the plot history and run the
Remove Plot command to remove it from the plot window’s history. This lets you
quickly remove a plot from the history without needing to re-render it in the
main plot window first.
Since the plot window is a Visual Studio tool window, it supports all of the standard tool window operations. One example is tearing off the plot window into its own top level window:
You can dock it into different locations within Visual Studio:
You can drag the plot window onto a separate monitor as well, and even save the layout of your windows into custom named layouts. You can read more about how to do this in the custom layouts section of this article on customizing window layouts in Visual Studio.
The plot window will resize the contained plot as the window is resized. This is possible because the plot window retains the command and the data that was used to render the plot. This lets RTVS render the highest quality representation of the plot as you resize the window.
Plots can also be exported in a number of different formats. You can use the toolbar buttons in the plot window to copy the current plot to the clipboard as a bitmap, or as a Windows metafile. The latter is the standard Windows vector graphics format, which lets you resize a plot to an arbitrary number of pixels without any loss of fidelity. You can use the toolbar buttons in the plot window to save a copy of the plot as a bitmap, or as a PDF (Portable Document Format) to a file.
A key feature of RTVS is letting you create as many plot windows as you need to do your work effectively. Oftentimes while doing analysis, you would like to have several plot windows visible simultaneously.
You can easily create a new plot window using the New Plot Window button in the plot window toolbar. Once you’ve created a new plot window, you can make it the active plot window by clicking on the Activate Plot Window command on its toolbar. Once active, all subsequent plot commands will render inside of that plot window. At any point in time, you can choose to make another plot window the active plot window by clicking on the Activate Plot Window command on its toolbar.
You can also copy or move plots between plot windows. Simply right click on a plot that you want to copy or move, and select Cut (if you want to move the plot) or Copy (if you want to copy the plot). Then right click on the plot window that you want to copy or move that plot to and select Paste.
You can also copy or move plots between plot windows by dragging and dropping the plot using a mouse. The default behavior, just like File Explorer, is to copy the plot if you drag it between plot windows. If you hold down the SHIFT key while dragging and dropping, you be moving the plot between the windows (i.e., it is removed from the source window, and added to the target window). You will also see a visual indication of the change in mode when you press the SHIFT key, as the “+” symbol next to the mouse pointer will vanish.
Since plot windows are Visual Studio tool windows, you can use all of the sophisticated window layout features in Visual Studio to arrange your plot windows to suit your needs.
You can programmatically manipulate plot windows from your own R scripts. R plot commands render their output to an R graphics device; a plot window renders the contents of an R graphics device. Graphics devices are named, and their name is shown in the title of each plot window. Knowing all of this, you can now understand how the following commands are used to implement all of the plot window functionality that you have already seen in RTVS:
You can list all of the graphics devices within the current R session:
You can create a new graphics device:
You can set the active graphics device to one of the ones on the list:
Finally, you can delete the active device: