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VowpalWabbit (VW) is a machine learning system which pushes the frontier of machine learning with techniques such as online, hashing, allreduce, reductions, learning2search, active, and interactive learning. VowpalWabbit is a popular choice in ad-tech due to it's speed and cost efficacy. Furthermore it includes many advances in the area of reinforcement learning (e.g. contextual bandits).

Advantages of VowpalWabbit

  • Composability: VowpalWabbit models can be incorporated into existing SparkML Pipelines, and used for batch, streaming, and serving workloads.
  • Small footprint: VowpalWabbit memory consumption is rather small and can be controlled through '-b 18' or setNumBits method.
    This determines the size of the model (e.g. 2^18 * some_constant).
  • Feature Interactions: Feature interactions (e.g. quadratic, cubic,... terms) are created on-the-fly within the most inner learning loop in VW. Interactions can be specified by using the -q parameter and passing the first character of the namespaces that should be interacted. The VW namespace concept is mapped to Spark using columns. The column name is used as namespace name, thus one sparse or dense Spark ML vector corresponds to the features of a single namespace. To allow passing of multiple namespaces the VW estimator (classifier or regression) expose an additional property called additionalFeatures. Users can pass an array of column names.
  • Simple deployment: all native dependencies are packaged into a single jars (including boost and zlib).
  • VowpalWabbit command line arguments: users can pass VW command line arguments to control the learning process.
  • VowpalWabbit binary models Users can supply an inital VowpalWabbit model to start the training which can be produced outside of VW on Spark by invoking setInitialModel and pass the model as a byte array. Similarly users can access the binary model by invoking getModel on the trained model object.
  • Java-based hashing VWs version of murmur-hash was re-implemented in Java (praise to JackDoe) providing a major performance improvement compared to passing input strings through JNI and hashing in C++.
  • Cross language VowpalWabbit on Spark is available on Spark, PySpark, and SparklyR.

Limitations of VowpalWabbit on Spark

  • Linux and CentOS only The native binaries included with the published jar are built Linux and CentOS only. We're working on creating a more portable version by statically linking Boost and lib C++.
  • Limited Parsing Features implemented in the native VW parser (e.g. ngrams, skips, ...) are not yet implemented in VowpalWabbitFeaturizer.

VowpalWabbit Usage:

  • VowpalWabbitClassifier: used to build classification models.
  • VowpalWabbitRegressor: used to build regression models.
  • VowpalWabbitFeaturizer: used for feature hashing and extraction. For details please visit here.
  • VowpalWabbitContextualBandit: used to solve contextual bandits problems. For algorithm details please visit here.

Heart Disease Detection with VowalWabbit Classifier

Read dataset

from pyspark.sql import SparkSession

# Bootstrap Spark Session
spark = SparkSession.builder.getOrCreate()

from import running_on_synapse

if running_on_synapse():
from notebookutils.visualization import display
df = ("csv")
.option("header", True)
.option("inferSchema", True)
# print dataset basic info
print("records read: " + str(df.count()))
print("Schema: ")

Split the dataset into train and test

train, test = df.randomSplit([0.85, 0.15], seed=1)

Use VowalWabbitFeaturizer to convert data features into vector

from import VowpalWabbitFeaturizer

featurizer = VowpalWabbitFeaturizer(inputCols=df.columns[:-1], outputCol="features")
train_data = featurizer.transform(train)["target", "features"]
test_data = featurizer.transform(test)["target", "features"]

Model Training

from import VowpalWabbitClassifier

model = VowpalWabbitClassifier(
numPasses=20, labelCol="target", featuresCol="features"

Model Prediction

predictions = model.transform(test_data)
from import ComputeModelStatistics

metrics = ComputeModelStatistics(
evaluationMetric="classification", labelCol="target", scoredLabelsCol="prediction"

Adult Census with VowpalWabbitClassifier

In this example, we predict incomes from the Adult Census dataset using Vowpal Wabbit (VW) Classifier in SynapseML.

Read dataset and split them into train & test

data =
data =["education", "marital-status", "hours-per-week", "income"])
train, test = data.randomSplit([0.75, 0.25], seed=123)

Model Training

We define a pipeline that includes feature engineering and training of a VW classifier. We use a featurizer provided by VW that hashes the feature names. Note that VW expects classification labels being -1 or 1. Thus, the income category is mapped to this space before feeding training data into the pipeline.

Note: VW supports distributed learning, and it's controlled by number of partitions of dataset.

from pyspark.sql.functions import when, col
from import Pipeline
from import VowpalWabbitFeaturizer, VowpalWabbitClassifier

# Define classification label
train = train.withColumn(
"label", when(col("income").contains("<"), 0.0).otherwise(1.0)

# Specify featurizer
vw_featurizer = VowpalWabbitFeaturizer(
inputCols=["education", "marital-status", "hours-per-week"], outputCol="features"

Note: "passThroughArgs" parameter lets you pass in any params not exposed through our API. Full command line argument docs can be found here.

# Define VW classification model
args = "--loss_function=logistic --quiet --holdout_off"
vw_model = VowpalWabbitClassifier(
featuresCol="features", labelCol="label", passThroughArgs=args, numPasses=10

# Create a pipeline
vw_pipeline = Pipeline(stages=[vw_featurizer, vw_model])
vw_trained =

Model Prediction

After the model is trained, we apply it to predict the income of each sample in the test set.

# Making predictions
test = test.withColumn("label", when(col("income").contains("<"), 0.0).otherwise(1.0))
prediction = vw_trained.transform(test)

Finally, we evaluate the model performance using ComputeModelStatistics function which will compute confusion matrix, accuracy, precision, recall, and AUC by default for classificaiton models.

from import ComputeModelStatistics

metrics = ComputeModelStatistics(
evaluationMetric="classification", labelCol="label", scoredLabelsCol="prediction"

Boston house price prediction with VowpalWabbitRegressor - Quantile Regression

In this example, we show how to build regression model with VW using Boston's house price.

Read dataset

We use Boston house price dataset . The data was collected in 1978 from Boston area and consists of 506 entries with 14 features including the value of homes. We use sklearn.datasets module to download it easily, then split the set into training and testing by 75/25.

import math
from matplotlib.colors import ListedColormap, Normalize
from import get_cmap
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from import ComputeModelStatistics
from import VowpalWabbitRegressor, VowpalWabbitFeaturizer
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.datasets import load_boston
boston = load_boston()

feature_cols = ["f" + str(i) for i in range([1])]
header = ["target"] + feature_cols
df = spark.createDataFrame(
pd.DataFrame(data=np.column_stack((,, columns=header)
print("Dataframe has {} rows".format(df.count()))
train_data, test_data = df.randomSplit([0.75, 0.25], seed=42)

Exploratory analysis: plot feature distributions over different target values.

features = train_data.columns[1:]
values = train_data.drop("target").toPandas()
ncols = 5
nrows = math.ceil(len(features) / ncols)

yy = [r["target"] for r in"target").collect()]

f, axes = plt.subplots(nrows, ncols, sharey=True, figsize=(30, 10))

for irow in range(nrows):
for icol in range(ncols):
feat = features[irow * ncols + icol]
xx = values[feat]

axes[irow][icol].scatter(xx, yy, s=10, alpha=0.25)
except IndexError:

VW-style feature hashing

vw_featurizer = VowpalWabbitFeaturizer(
vw_train_data = vw_featurizer.transform(train_data)["target", "features"]
vw_test_data = vw_featurizer.transform(test_data)["target", "features"]

Model training & Prediction

See VW wiki for command line arguments.

args = "--holdout_off --loss_function quantile -l 7 -q :: --power_t 0.7"
vwr = VowpalWabbitRegressor(

# To reduce number of partitions (which will effect performance), use `vw_train_data.repartition(1)`
vw_model =
vw_predictions = vw_model.transform(vw_test_data)


Compute Statistics & Visualization

metrics = ComputeModelStatistics(
evaluationMetric="regression", labelCol="target", scoresCol="prediction"

vw_result = metrics.toPandas()
vw_result.insert(0, "model", ["Vowpal Wabbit"])
cmap = get_cmap("YlOrRd")
target = np.array("target").collect()).flatten()
model_preds = [("Vowpal Wabbit", vw_predictions)]

f, axe = plt.subplots(figsize=(6, 6))

preds = np.array("prediction").collect()).flatten()
err = np.absolute(preds - target)
norm = Normalize()
clrs = cmap(np.asarray(norm(err)))[:, :-1]
plt.scatter(preds, target, s=60, c=clrs, edgecolors="#888888", alpha=0.75)
plt.plot((0, 60), (0, 60), line, color="#888888")
axe.set_xlabel("Predicted values")
axe.set_ylabel("Actual values")
axe.set_title("Vowpal Wabbit")

Quantile Regression for Drug Discovery with VowpalWabbitRegressor

Read dataset

triazines ="libsvm").load(
# print some basic info
print("records read: " + str(triazines.count()))
print("Schema: ")

Split dataset into train and test

train, test = triazines.randomSplit([0.85, 0.15], seed=1)

Model Training

from import VowpalWabbitRegressor

model = VowpalWabbitRegressor(
numPasses=20, passThroughArgs="--holdout_off --loss_function quantile -q :: -l 0.1"

Model Prediction

scoredData = model.transform(test)
from import ComputeModelStatistics

metrics = ComputeModelStatistics(
evaluationMetric="regression", labelCol="label", scoresCol="prediction"

VW Contextual Bandit

Read dataset

data ="json").load(

Note: Actions are all five TAction_x_topic columns.

from pyspark.sql.functions import col
from pyspark.sql.types import IntegerType, DoubleType

data = (
data.withColumn("GUser_id", col(""))
.withColumn("GUser_major", col("c.GUser.major"))
.withColumn("GUser_hobby", col("c.GUser.hobby"))
.withColumn("GUser_favorite_character", col("c.GUser.favorite_character"))
.withColumn("TAction_0_topic", col("c._multi.TAction.topic")[0])
.withColumn("TAction_1_topic", col("c._multi.TAction.topic")[1])
.withColumn("TAction_2_topic", col("c._multi.TAction.topic")[2])
.withColumn("TAction_3_topic", col("c._multi.TAction.topic")[3])
.withColumn("TAction_4_topic", col("c._multi.TAction.topic")[4])
.withColumn("chosenAction", col("_label_Action").cast(IntegerType()))
.withColumn("label", col("_labelIndex").cast(DoubleType()))
.withColumn("probability", col("_label_probability"))

print("Schema: ")

Add pipeline to add featurizer, convert all feature columns into vector.

from import (
from import Pipeline

pipeline = Pipeline(
VowpalWabbitFeaturizer(inputCols=["GUser_id"], outputCol="GUser_id_feature"),
inputCols=["GUser_major"], outputCol="GUser_major_feature"
inputCols=["GUser_hobby"], outputCol="GUser_hobby_feature"
inputCols=["TAction_0_topic"], outputCol="TAction_0_topic_feature"
inputCols=["TAction_1_topic"], outputCol="TAction_1_topic_feature"
inputCols=["TAction_2_topic"], outputCol="TAction_2_topic_feature"
inputCols=["TAction_3_topic"], outputCol="TAction_3_topic_feature"
inputCols=["TAction_4_topic"], outputCol="TAction_4_topic_feature"
tranformation_pipeline =
transformed_data = tranformation_pipeline.transform(data)


Build VowpalWabbit Contextual Bandit model and compute performance statistics.

estimator = (
.setPassThroughArgs("--cb_explore_adf --epsilon 0.2 --quiet")
model =