In this hands-on lab and the ones that follow, you will build a comprehensive IoT solution that demonstrates some of the very best features Microsoft Azure has to offer, including IoT Hubs, Event Hubs, Azure Functions, Stream Analytics, and Cognitive Services. The solution you build today will culminate into an Air-Traffic Control (ATC) app that shows simulated aircraft flying through an ATC sector and warns users when aircraft get too close to each other. While these labs are best to do with several peers, there is an application in the lab assets which can inject simulated drones into the workstream (details available in the Labs section.)
The Air-Traffic Control application
You will be the pilot of one of these aircraft. And to do the flying, you will use the MXChip IoT DevKit, which is an Arduino-compatible device that is ideal for prototyping IoT solutions. It features an array of sensors, including an accelerometer, a gyrometer, and temperature and humidity sensors, and it includes built-in Wi-Fi so it can transmit data to Azure IoT Hubs wirelessly. It also features a micro-USB port by which you can connect it to your laptop, upload software, and power the hardware. You will control your aircraft by tilting the MXChip IoT DevKit backward and forward to go up and down, and rotating it left and right to turn.
IoT development board
Here is how the solution is architected, with elements that you will build or deploy highlighted in light blue:
Accelerometer data from the device is transmitted to an Azure IoT Hub. An Azure Function transforms the raw accelerometer data into flight data denoting airspeed, heading, altitude, latitude, longitude, pitch, and roll. The destination for that data is a pair of Event Hubs — one that you set up, and one that is shared by your peers or the simulator drones. Events from your Event Hub are consumed by a client app running on your laptop that shows the position and attitude of your aircraft. The events sent to the shared Event Hub go to a Stream Analytics job that analyzes fast-moving data for aircraft that are in danger of colliding and provides that data to the client app and the ATC app. When your aircraft comes too close to another, it turns red on the screen, and a warning appears on the screen of your MXChip. To top it off, Microsoft Cognitive Services translates the warning into the language of your choice.
The goal of this lab is to get the device up and running and sending events to an Azure IoT Hub. Let’s get started!
Here’s a synopsis of the four labs that comprise this project:
- Lab 1 - Create an Azure IoT Hub and program an MXChip IoT DevKit to send accelerometer data to it.
- Lab 2 - Create an Azure Event Hub and deploy an Azure Function that transforms accelerometer data input to the IoT Hub into “flight data” denoting the disposition on an airplane and transmits it to the Event Hub. Then connect a UWP client app to the Event Hub and use their MXChip IoT DevKit to fly a simulated airplane.
- Lab 3 - Creates a pair of Event Hubs and deploy a Stream Analytics job that analyzes all the air traffic for aircraft that are within two miles of each another. Also deploys a UWP app that shows all the air traffic.
- Lab 4 - Modify the Azure Function deployed in Lab 2 to transmit flight data to the input hub used by Stream Analytics. Then connect the client app to the Stream Analytics output and modify the app to transmit warning messages back to the MXChip IoT DevKit when aircraft are within two miles of another.
The asset repository also has four source-code folders:
- FlySim - A Visual Studio 2017 solution containing the client app that you use to fly simulated airplanes.
- FlySimEmbedded - The code you upload to the MXChip IoT DevKit to program it to send accelerometer data to an Azure IoT Hub.
- AirTrafficSim - A Visual Studio 2017 solution containing the air-traffic control (ATC) app that shows all the airplanes in flight and highlights those that are within two miles of each other.
- FlySimTest - A Visual Studio 2017 solution containing a command-line app for injecting simulated aircraft into AirTrafficSim. It’s great for testing, and also for adding airplanes to the ATC sector, if you don’t have peers working with you through this content. To prepare it for use, replace SHARED_EVENT_HUB_ENDPOINT on line 54 with the endpoint connection string for the Event Hub that provides input to Stream Analytics. By default, it injects 20 airplanes. You can inject more (or less) by specifying the desired number as a command-line parameter.
The following are required to complete this lab:
- An MXChip IoT DevKit
- A computer running Windows 10 Anniversary Edition or higher
- Finish the Getting Started Guide to:
- Have your IoT DevKit connected to Wi-Fi
- Upgrade to the latest firmware
- Prepare the development environment
- An active Azure subscription. If you do not have one, you can register via one of the methods:
- An available Wi-Fi connection or mobile hotspot. Note that the Wi-Fi connection can (and should) be secure, but it must be ungated (i.e. no intermediate login page is required. Gated Wi-Fi is common in public venues and hotels).
Note: For developers work on a Mac, please see this article for installing Windows 10 to enable building and running the UWP portion of this lab.
This lab includes the following exercises:
- Exercise 1: Provision an Azure IoT Hub
- Exercise 2: Deploy an app to the device
- Exercise 3: Check IoT Hub activity
Estimated time to complete this lab: 60 minutes including development environment setup.
Exercise 1: Provision an Azure IoT Hub
Azure IoT Hubs enable IoT devices to connect securely to the cloud and transmit messages (events) that can be ingested by apps and other Azure services. They support bidirectional communication, and they are built to be massively scalable. A single IoT Hub can handle millions of events per second. Messages can be sent over HTTP, or using the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) or Message Queueing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. Devices can be authenticated using per-device security keys or X.509 certificates.
In this exercise, you will provision an Azure IoT Hub for your MXChip IoT DevKit to transmit events to.
Open the Azure Portal in your browser. If asked to log in, do so using your Microsoft account.
Click + New, followed by Internet of Things and IoT Hub.
Provisioning a new IoT Hub
Enter a unique name for IoT Hub in the Name field. IoT Hub names must be unique across Azure, so make sure a green check mark appears next to it. Also make sure S1 - Standard is selected as the pricing tier. Select Create new under Resource group and enter the resource-group name “FlySimResources.” Select East US as the Location (important!). Accept the default values everywhere else, and then click Create.
You selected East US as the location because in Lab 3, you will create Azure resources in that same region for the IoT Hub to connect to. Azure resources can be connected across regions but keeping everything within the same data center reduces cost and minimizes latency.
Configuring an IoT Hub
Click Resource groups in the ribbon on the left side of the portal, and then click FlySimResources to open the resource group.
Opening the resource group
Wait until “Deploying” changes to “Succeeded,” indicating that the IoT Hub has been provisioned. You can click the Refresh button at the top of the blade to refresh the deployment status.
Because you selected S1 - Standard as the pricing tier in Step 3, you can transmit up to 400,000 messages a day to the IoT Hub for $50 per month. A Free tier that accepts up to 8,000 messages per day is also available, but that tier might be too limiting for this exercise. For more information on the various pricing tiers that are available, see IoT Hub pricing.
Exercise 2: Deploy an app to the device
In this exercise, you will compile an embedded C++ app that transmits events to your Azure IoT Hub and use Visual Studio Code to upload it to the MXChip. Once the app is uploaded, it will begin executing on the device, and it will send a JSON payload containing three accelerometer values (X, Y, and Z) as well as temperature and humidity readings approximately every two seconds. The app is persisted in the firmware and automatically resumes execution if the device is powered off and back on.
Using git, clone the lab’s assets to your local file system. You can optionally use the download link on the repository’s home page to download the assets as a zip file.
Start Visual Studio Code and select Open Folder… from the File menu. Browse to the “FlySimEmbedded” folder included in the lab’s assets.
Open config.h and replace YOUR_DISPLAY_NAME with a friendly display name. Then save the file. This name will be seen by everyone when the ATC app is run in Lab 4, so please choose a name that’s appropriate. Also make it as unique as possible by including birth dates (for example, “Amelia Earhart 093059”) or other values that are unlikely to be duplicated.
Entering a display name
Press F1 and type “terminal” into the search box. Then select Select Default Shell.
Selecting the default shell
Select PowerShell from the list of shells to make PowerShell the default shell.
Making PowerShell the default shell
Select Run Task from Visual Studio Code’s Tasks menu, and then select cloud-provision from the drop-down list of tasks. This will begin the process of authorizing your device to access the IoT Hub created in the previous exercise.
Starting the cloud-provisioning process
When a “Device Login” screen appears in your browser, copy the login code displayed in Visual Studio Code’s Terminal window to the clipboard.
Getting the device-login code
Return to the “Device Login” screen in the browser, paste the login code into the input field, and click Continue.
Logging in to the device
Return to the Terminal window in Visual Studio Code and wait for a list of Azure subscriptions to appear. Use the up- and down-arrow keys to select the Azure subscription that you used to provision the Azure IoT Hub in Exercise 1. Then press Enter to select that subscription.
When a list of IoT Hubs associated with the subscription appears in the Terminal window, select the IoT Hub that you provisioned in Exercise 1.
Selecting an Azure IoT Hub
Wait until the message “Terminal will be reused by tasks, press any key to close it” appears in the Terminal window. This indicates that the cloud-provisioning process completed successfully. Your MXChip IoT DevKit can now authenticate with the IoT Hub and send messages to it securely.
A successful cloud-provision task
Now it’s time to upload code to the device to have it transmit events to the IoT Hub. Select Tasks > Run Task again, and then select device-upload.
Starting the device-upload process
Wait until you are prompted in the Terminal window to “hold on Button A and then press Button Reset to enter configuration mode.” Then do the following:
- Press and hold the A button on the device
- With the A button held down, press and release the Reset button
- Release the A button
After a brief pause, the C++ app that reads accelerometer data and transmits it to the IoT Hub will begin uploading to your device. If you are curious to see what the source code looks like, examine the CPP files in the project directory in Visual Studio Code.
Wait until the message “Terminal will be reused by tasks, press any key to close it” appears in the Terminal window. After the device restarts, confirm that the message “IN FLIGHT” appears on the screen of the device, followed by X, Y, and Z values that change when you tilt the board in any direction. These are the accelerometer values passed to the IoT Hub. The fact that they appear on the screen confirms that the upload was successful, and that the app is running on the device.
MXChip IoT DevKit with your embedded code running on it
We know that the device is transmitting events. Now let’s make sure those events are being received by the IoT Hub.
Exercise 3: Check IoT Hub activity
In this exercise, you will use the Azure portal to confirm that the MXChip IoT DevKit is registered with the IoT Hub you created in Exercise 1, and also confirm that the hub is receiving messages from the device.
Return to the Azure portal and to the “FlySimResources” resource group. Then click the IoT Hub that you created in Exercise 1.
Opening a blade for the IoT Hub
Click Overview and look at the count of messages received and the number of devices registered. Confirm that the device count is 1, and that the number of messages received is greater than zero.
Stats regarding the IoT Hub
Click Device Explorer to display a list of all devices that are registered to communicate with this IoT Hub. Confirm that your device (“AZ3166”) appears in the list.
Devices registered with the IoT Hub
Return to Visual Studio Code and click the Connect icon in the status bar at lower right.
Connecting to the device via a COM port
When the icon changes to an ‘X’, click the Baud rate on the left and select 115200 from the drop-down list to increase the Baud rate.
Increasing the Baud rate
Look in Visual Studio Code’s Output window and confirm that events are being transmitted. You can also see the JSON format in which they’re transmitted. This is the raw data streaming to the IoT Hub. Note that the display name you entered in the previous exercise is transmitted in a field named “deviceId,” and that each message includes a timestamp in the “timestamp” field.
Events transmitted from the device to the IoT Hub
The MXChip IoT DevKit is now running embedded code that sends accelerometer data to the IoT Hub. Consumers of that data can examine the X, Y, and Z values and determine the device’s physical orientation in space. This sets the stage for the next lab, in which you will make use of that data.
In this lab, you created an Azure IoT Hub and configured your MXChip IoT DevKit to send data to it.
In Lab 2, you will build the infrastructure necessary to fly a simulated aircraft using the MXChip. That infrastructure will consist of an Azure Function that transforms accelerometer readings passing through the IoT Hub into flight data denoting the position and attitude of an aircraft, as well as an Azure Event Hub that receives data from the Azure Function. Once the Function and Event Hub are in place, you will connect a client app to the Event Hub and practice flying an aircraft by tilting your MXChip IoT DevKit backward and forward to go up and down and rotating it right and left to bank and turn. In other words, the fun is just beginning!