Controlled task completion source

The Coyote asynchronous tasks programming model provides a Microsoft.Coyote.Tasks.TaskCompletionSource<TResult> type that is controlled by coyote test during systematic testing to explore interleavings and find concurrency bugs. In production, this type is simply a thin wrapper over the native .NET System.Threading.Tasks.TaskCompletionSource<TResult> type, providing the same operational semantics that you are familiar with.

Why is a task completion source necessary?

In many asynchronous scenarios, it is useful to create a Task<TResult> and pass it to one or more consumers, which can then await for this task to complete to get its result. The controlled TaskCompletionSource<TResult> type of Coyote acts as the producer for such a Task<TResult>. The owner of the TaskCompletionSource<TResult> is able to control the state of the produced Task<TResult> and complete it by setting its result. You can learn more about the semantics of a task completion source in the .NET documentation of the native TaskCompletionSource<T> type.

How do you use it?

  1. First, create a new controlled TaskCompletionSource<TResult> using the static method TaskCompletionSource.Create<TResult>().
  2. Then, you can get the controlled Task<TResult> associated with this task completion source, using the TaskCompletionSource.Task property, and share it with one or more consumers.
  3. Finally, you can use the TaskCompletionSource to complete the produced Task<TResult>. You can do this using the methods of the controlled task completion source:
    • SetResult()
    • SetException()
    • SetCanceled(), or their TrySet* variants:
    • TrySetResult()
    • TrySetException()
    • TrySetCanceled()

Why are there two sets of methods, namely, the Set* methods that return void and their TrySet* variants that return bool? The reason is that the controlled Task<TResult> associated with the TaskCompletionSource<TResult> may only be completed once, thus attempting to set this task into a completed state when it’s already in a completed state is an error, and the Set* methods will throw. However, as we’re dealing with concurrency here, and there are some situations where races may be expected between multiple threads trying to resolve the completion source, the TrySet* variants return bool indicating success rather than throwing an exception.

Example code

The code below demonstrates a controlled TaskCompletionSource<TResult> in action. This represents the most typical scenario in which programmers need and use a task completion source, namely to know when a long-running operation, that itself is not awaitable, has finished.

using Microsoft.Coyote.Tasks;

public void StartLongOperation(TaskCompletionSource<bool> tcs)
    Console.WriteLine("Producer: Running a long operation...");
    // ... do something that takes a long time.
    // This may include calling a 3rd party library that is not awaitable.
    Console.WriteLine("Producer: Completed the long operation.");
    Console.WriteLine("Producer: Completed the task completion source.");

The above StartLongOperation method is responsible for running some long operation. Although the method is not awaitable, as it returns void, it can signal its completion by setting the result of the controlled TaskCompletionSource<bool> to true.

A consumer of the task produced by this task completion source can await on its completion using the following code:

using Microsoft.Coyote.Tasks;

// The input task is the task produced by the task completion source.
public async Task Consumer(Task<bool> task)
    Console.WriteLine("Consumer: Waiting the long operation to complete...");
    await task;
    Console.WriteLine("Consumer: The long operation has completed so we can proceed with other work.");

You can now use a TaskCompletionSource to coordinate this long running operation with another async Task that needs to wait on the completion of that operation like this:

private async Task RunTest()
    var completion = TaskCompletionSource.Create<bool>();
    await this.Consumer(completion.Task);

    Console.WriteLine("Main test complete!");

The output of this program will look something like this:

Producer: Running a long operation...
Consumer: Waiting the long operation to complete...
Producer: Completed the long operation.
Consumer: The long operation has completed so we can proceed with other work.
Main test complete!
Producer: Completed the task completion source.

Note: You must be careful to specify the namespace Microsoft.Coyote.Tasks to use the controlled TaskCompletionSource<TResult>, otherwise you could get the native .NET TaskCompletionSource<TResult> instead!

You might also be puzzled by a build error if you try and do this:

static async Task Main(string[] args)
    Program p = new Program();
    await p.RunTest();


error CS5001: Program does not contain a static 'Main' method suitable for an entry point

The reason is C# doesn’t know about the coyote Task, so the fix is to fully qualify that Main entry point task like this:

static async System.Threading.Tasks.Task Main(string[] args)
    Program p = new Program();
    await p.RunTest();

Hopefully this is the only place in your code that you will need to explicitly use a native .NET Task.