QEMU has the ability to expose a GDB port for debugging. This can be leveraged several ways. To start enable the GDB server, add the following parameter when launched QEMU through the QEMU runner.
Example ports can be: 1234, 5000, 5001, etc.
Windbg supports source debugging QEMU through an EXDI interface with the GDB port. Details can be found on the github readme. This supplies a EXDI server binary, a configuration file, and a script to start Windbg bound to the EXDI interface.
Once Windbg is connected, following the instruction in the readme, the symbols and source can be loaded by scanning memory for images using the image scan command. For example:
kd> r rip rip=000000007d1fc64b kd> .imgscan /l /r 0x07d000000 0x07e000000
This will scan for image headers between the specified addresses and load their symbols. More information on this command can be found in the Windbg help window.