# Tutorial

The core component of the PROSE SDK is its program synthesis framework for custom domain-specific languages (DSLs). It allows you to define a DSL that describes a typical space of tasks in your application domain, and automatically provides parsing, execution, and synthesis technologies for this DSL. Text transformation and text extraction DSLs are programming-by-example technologies that have been developed on top of the PROSE core synthesis framework.

This is a step-by-step tutorial on using the PROSE framework to create new DSLs. To use an existing DSL in your programming-by-examples application, please check out its individual documentation link on the left.

## DSL Structure

A DSL consists of four main components:

1. Syntax – a context-free grammar describing a space of possible programs in a DSL.
2. Semantics – an executable function for each user-defined DSL operator.
3. [optional] Features – computed attributes on individual programs in the DSL (for instance, a syntactic score of a program for ranking purposes).
4. [optional] Witness functions – small “inverse semantics” functions that enable deductive backpropagation, the main synthesis technology provided in the PROSE framework.

Below, we illustrate the usage of all four components on a small example DSL – a portion of FlashFill.

## Syntax

Our example DSL describes a space of programs that extract a substring from a given string. They can do it in two possible ways – either extract a substring based on absolute position indices, or based on matches of regular expressions.

Here’s the first version of the grammar of our DSL:

#reference 'file:SubstringExtraction.dll';
using semantics SubstringExtraction.Semantics;
language SubstringExtraction;

@input string x;

// Extract a substring from 'x' between positions 'posPair'
@start string out := Substring(x, posPair);
Tuple<int?, int?> posPair := PositionPair(pos, pos)
= Pair(pos, pos);
int? pos := // A position at index 'k' (from the left if k >= 0, or from the right if k < 0)
AbsolutePosition(x, k)
// A position where two regexes 'positionBoundaries' match to left and to the right,
// respectively, and it is the 'k'-th such position
| RegexPosition(x, positionBoundaries, k);
Tuple<Regex, Regex> positionBoundaries := RegexPair(r, r)
= Pair(r, r);

Regex r;
int k;


Here are some possible extraction programs contained in the SubstringExtraction DSL:

• First 5 characters:
Substring(x, PositionPair(AbsolutePosition(x, 0), AbsolutePosition(x, 5)))
• Last character:
Substring(x, PositionPair(AbsolutePosition(x, -2), AbsolutePosition(x, -1)))
• A substring from the start until (but not including) the last number1:
Substring(x, PositionPair(AbsolutePosition(x, 0), RegexPosition(x, RegexPair(//, /\d+/), -1))
• A substring between the first pair of parentheses:
Substring(x, PositionPair(RegexPosition(x, RegexPair(/$$/, //), 0), RegexPosition(x, RegexPair(//, /$$/), 0)))
Note that this program will not extract the desired content if x contains unbalanced parentheses (for instance, x $=$ "a) Bread ($2.00)"). This problem can be addressed by a language extension. In general, a DSL consists of symbols and operators upon these symbols. In a context-free grammar, a DSL is represented as a set of rules, where each symbol on the left-hand side is bound to a set of possible operators on the right-hand side that represent this symbol. Every operator must be pure – it should not have observable side effects. In other words, PROSE DSLs are functional – they operate upon immutable states. A program in a DSL transforms input data into output data. One terminal symbol in a DSL should be marked as @input – this is the input variable to all programs in this DSL. One nonterminal symbol in a DSL should be marked as @start – this is the root symbol for all programs in the DSL. A program is represented as an abstract syntax tree (AST) of the DSL operators. Each node in this tree (similarly, each DSL operator) has some invocation semantics. More formally, each AST node has a method Invoke. It takes as input a state$\mathbf{\sigma}$and returns some output. A state is a mapping from DSL variables to their values. Initially, the topmost AST node invoked on a state with a single variable binding for the DSL’s input variable. Here’s how you can parse and execute a program in our SubstringExtraction DSL: using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis; using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.AST; using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.Compiler; // Parse the DSL grammar above, saved in a .grammar file var grammar = DSLCompiler.ParseGrammarFromFile("SubstringExtraction.grammar").Value; // Parse a program in this grammar. PROSE supports two serialization formats: // "human-readable" expression format, used in this tutorial, and machine-readable XML. var ast = ProgramNode.Parse("Substring(x, PositionPair(AbsolutePosition(x, 0), AbsolutePosition(x, 5)))", grammar, ASTSerializationFormat.HumanReadable); // Create an input state to the program. It contains one binding: a variable 'x' (DSL input) // is bound to the string "PROSE Rocks". var input = State.Create(grammar.InputSymbol, "PROSE Rocks"); // Execute the program on the input state. var output = (string) ast.Invoke(input); Assert(output == "PROSE");  A ParseGrammarFromFile invocation returns a Result<Grammar>, which either holds a valid parsed grammar in its Value property, or a collection of errors/warnings in its Diagnostics property. You can quickly examine all diagnostics by calling result.TraceDiagnostics(). At this moment grammar parsing will fail since we haven’t defined any execution semantics for the operators in our DSL, only its syntax. Let’s fix that. ## Semantics An executable semantics for an operator$F$in PROSE is a .NET function that matches the signature of$F$. You need to provide it for every operator in your DSL that is not imported from the standard library of PROSE or another language. In our example, such operators are Substring, AbsolutePosition, and RegexPosition. All semantics functions should be defined as static methods. Static classes where PROSE searches for such functions (called semantics holders) are indicated in the grammar with a using semantics declaration. A DSL may contain multiple using semantics declarations, but each operator should correspond to exactly one semantics function with the same name and signature in one of semantics holders. using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; using System.Text.RegularExpressions; static class Semantics { static string Substring(string x, Tuple<int?, int?> posPair) { if (posPair.Item1 == null || posPair.Item2 == null) return null; int start = posPair.Item1.Value; int end = posPair.Item2.Value; if (start < 0 || start >= x.Length || end < 0 || end >= x.Length || end < start) return null; return x.Substring(start, end - start); } static int? AbsolutePosition(string x, int k) { if (k > x.Length || k < -x.Length - 1) return null; return k >= 0 ? k : (x.Length + k + 1); } static int? RegexPosition(string x, Tuple<Regex, Regex> regexPair, int occurrence) { if (regexPair.Item1 == null || regexPair.Item2 == null) return null; Regex left = regexPair.Item1; Regex right = regexPair.Item2; var rightMatches = right.Matches(x).Cast<Match>().ToDictionary(m => m.Index); var matchPositions = new List<int>(); foreach (Match m in left.Matches(x)) { if (rightMatches.ContainsKey(m.Index + m.Length)) matchPositions.Add(m.Index + m.Length); } if (occurrence >= matchPositions.Count || occurrence < -matchPositions.Count) return null; return occurrence >= 0 ? matchPositions[occurrence] : matchPositions[matchPositions.Count + occurrence]; } }  This code illustrates several important points that you should keep in mind when designing a DSL: • DSL operators must be total (return a value for each possible combination of inputs) and pure (deterministic without observable side effects). An invalid input or any other exceptional situation should be handled not by throwing an exception, but by returning null instead. In PROSE, null is a valid value with a meaning “computation failed”. • Semantics functions should have the same name and signature as their corresponding DSL operators. They don’t have access to the current input state – if you need to access a DSL variable in scope, include it explicitly as a parameter. In our example, x is a parameter for both AbsolutePosition and RegexPosition. Note: The dslc grammar compiler uses reflection to find definitions of external components of a grammar, such as semantics functions. It searches over the assemblies specified with reference statements in the grammar. Those assemblies must be built and present at given locations when you execute dslc (in a command-line or API form). If you build your semantics functions and your grammar definition in the same solution, make sure to separate them into different projects and make the grammar project depend on the semantics project, so that the latter one is built first. If you generate your project template using our Yeoman generator, its projects will be pre-arranged in this fashion automatically. Syntax and semantics above constitute a minimal DSL definition. They are sufficient for our little parsing/execution sample to work. Let’s proceed now to synthesizing programs in this DSL. ## Synthesis PROSE comes with a default synthesis strategy which we call deductive backpropagation. It also enables researchers in the field of synthesis to develop their own strategies on top of its common API. However, in this tutorial we explain how to use backpropagation for synthesis of programs in our SubstringExtraction DSL. Program synthesis starts with a specification: what do we want from a desired program? In PROSE, specifications are inductive: they specify an output of a desired program on some input state, or, more generally, some property of this output. In this tutorial, we start with the simplest form of such a spec – ExampleSpec, an input-output example. Given a spec, we invoke a learning session on it, generating a set of programs in the DSL that are consistent with the input-output examples in the spec. using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.Specifications; using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.Learning; var input = State.Create(grammar.InputSymbol, "PROSE Rocks"); string desiredOutput = "PROSE"; var spec = new ExampleSpec(new Dictionary<State, object> { [input] = desiredOutput }); var engine = new SynthesisEngine(grammar); ProgramSet learned = engine.LearnGrammar(spec); Assert(learned?.Size > 0);  At this moment the learning result will be empty. The reason for this is that PROSE does not have information about your DSL to perform any kind of reasoning over it. For instance, terminal symbols k and r should be replaced with literal int or Regex constants, respectively, in each generated program. However, they are seemingly unbounded: any integer or regular expression in the world could possibly be present in a desired program, thus our search space is effectively infinite. What about the specification, then? An input-output example that we provided drastically restricts the search space size. For instance, the input string "PROSE Rocks" is 11 characters long, hence any absolute position extraction logic AbsolutePosition(x, k) with$k > 12$or$k < -11$cannot be consistent with the spec. What we just did here was backwards reasoning over the DSL structure: we deduced a constraint on k in a desired program from a constraint on the entire program. To do that, we essentially inverted the semantics of AbsolutePosition, deducing its inputs (or their properties) given the output. In PROSE, such a procedure is called a witness function, and it is a surprisingly simple way to specify immensely powerful hints for the learning process. ### Witness Functions A witness function is defined for a parameter of a DSL operator. In its simplest form a witness function deduces a specification on that parameter given a specification on the entire operator. A witness function does not by itself constitute a learning algorithm (or even a substantial portion of it), it is simply a domain-specific property of some operator in your language – its inverse semantics. For instance, the first witness function we’ll write in this tutorial is defined for the parameter posPair of the rule Substring(x, posPair) of our SubstringExtraction DSL. It takes as input an ExampleSpec$\phi$on an output of Substring(x, posPair), and deduces a spec$\phi’$on an output of posPair subexpression that is necessary (or even better, necessary and sufficient) for the entire expression to satisfy$\phi$. Consider a program Substring(x, posPair) that outputs "PROSE" on a given input state$\{$x$:=$"PROSE Rocks"$\}$. What could be a possible spec on posPair? Clearly, we know it precisely for the given example: posPair, whatever this program is, must evaluate to (0, 5) because this is the only occurrence of the string "PROSE" in the given input "PROSE Rocks". In a more complex example, however, there is no single answer. For instance, suppose x$=$"(555) 279-2261", and the corresponding desired output in a spec is "2". In this case, the substring "2" could have been extracted from 3 different places in the input string. Therefore, instead of witnessing a single output value for posPair on a given input, in this case we witness a disjunction of three possible output values. A disjunction of possible outputs has its own representative spec type in PROSE – DisjunctiveExamplesSpec. The two cases above lead us to a general definition of a witness function for posPair: find all occurrences of the desired output string in the input, and return a disjunction of them. In PROSE, you express it in the following way: using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis; using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.Specifications; using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.Learning; class WitnessFunctions : DomainLearningLogic { public WitnessFunctions(Grammar grammar) : base(grammar) { } [WitnessFunction("Substring", parameterIndex: 1)] DisjunctiveExamplesSpec WitnessPositionPair(GrammarRule rule, ExampleSpec spec) { var result = new Dictionary<State, IEnumerable<object>>(); foreach (var example in spec.Examples) { State inputState = example.Key; // the first parameter of Substring is the variable symbol 'x' // we extract its current bound value from the given input state var x = (string) inputState[rule.Body[0]]; var substring = (string) example.Value; var occurrences = new List<Tuple<int?, int?>>(); // Iterate over all occurrences of 'substring' in 'x', // and add their position boundaries to the list of possible outputs for posPair. for (int i = x.IndexOf(substring); i >= 0; i = x.IndexOf(substring, i + 1)) { occurrences.Add(Tuple.Create((int?) i, (int?) i + substring.Length)); } if (occurrences.Count == 0) return null; result[inputState] = occurrences; } return new DisjunctiveExamplesSpec(result); } }  We put this witness function in a class called, for instance, SubstringExtraction.WitnessFunctions. Such a class holds domain learning logic – all hints and annotations that a DSL designer wants to provide to help the PROSE synthesis engine. WitnessFunctions inherits from Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.Learning.DomainLearningLogic, and must override a constructor to provide its base class with the grammar of the DSL it is defined for. Usually it’s easiest to supply this grammar to the constructor of WitnessFunctions since it is not accessible from within the WitnessFunction – the grammar definition depends on domain learning logic, not the other way around. A domain learning logic is specified in the grammar file similarly to a semantics holder, with its own statement: using learners SubstringExtraction.WitnessFunctions;  Similarly to semantics, a grammar may contain multiple using learners statements. #### Writing witness functions Some important points on writing witness functions: • A witness function is defined for one parameter of an operator, not the entire operator. • A witness function takes as input a spec on the output of the entire operator expression, and outputs a spec on the output of one parameter program in that expression. • Ideally, the spec produced by a witness function is necessary and sufficient to satisfy the given outer spec. You can also write an imprecise witness function, whose produced spec is only necessary for the outer spec to hold (in other words, it is an overapproximation). Such a witness function says “I cannot constrain this parameter precisely, but I can narrow down the space of possibilities. All valid parameter programs should satisfy my produced spec, but there may be some invalid ones that also satisfy it.” To mark a witness function as imprecise, add a property Verify = true to its [WitnessFunction] attribute. • You don’t need to define witness functions for parameters that are grammar variables in a state (such as x). More generally, you don’t need to define witness functions for a parameter$p$if all DSL programs that may derive from$p$do not include any constant literals. • You don’t need to define witness functions for operators from the standard library (with some exceptions). • Returning null from a witness function means “The given spec is inconsistent, no program can possibly satisfy it.” • Hint: use C# nameof operator with your Semantics implementations to provide an operator name in the [WitnessFunction] attribute. #### Absolute positions Covering more DSL operators with witness functions is straightforward. The next one witnesses k in the AbsolutePosition operator. Given an example of position$\ell$that AbsolutePosition(x, k) produced, k must have been one of two options: the offset of$\ell$from the left or from the right in x. We can apply similar logic if we are given not one position$\ell$but a disjunction of them: the witness function just enumerates over each option, collecting all possible values of k. [WitnessFunction("AbsolutePosition", 1) DisjunctiveExamplesSpec WitnessK(GrammarRule rule, DisjunctiveExamplesSpec spec) { var result = new Dictionary<State, IEnumerable<object>>(); foreach (var example in spec.DisjunctiveExamples) { State inputState = example.Key; var ks = new HashSet<int?>(); var x = (string) inputState[rule.Body[0]]; foreach (int? pos in example.Value) { ks.Add(pos); ks.Add(pos - x.Length - 1); } if (ks.Count == 0) return null; result[inputState] = ks.Cast<object>(); } return new DisjunctiveExamplesSpec(result); }  #### Regex-based positions Operator RegexPosition needs two witness functions: one for its rr parameter and one for its k parameter. For the first one, we need to learn a list of regular expressions that match to the left and to the right of given position. There are many techniques for doing that; in this tutorial, we assume that we have a predefined list of “common” regexes like /[0-9]+/, and enumerate them exhaustively at a given position. Note: to make the semantics of RegexPosition(x, rr, k) and its witness functions consistent, we need to agree on what it means for a regex to “match” at a given position. If we take a standard definition of “matching”, and simply test each regex at each position, we may run into problems when determining the corresponding k for each regex. Consider a string x$=$"abc def". We would like a program RegexPosition(x, RegexPair(//, /[a-z]+/), 1) to match before a second word in x – in this case, at position №4. However, for that we need to assume non-overlapping semantics of regex matches, since the regex /[a-z]+/ also matches at positions №0, №1, and №2. In fact, there are 6 matches of this regex in x, but only two “words” by a “common sense” definition. Therefore, instead of testing a regex at each position, we need to first run it against the entire string, record a list of non-overlapping matches, and only then test a position for a match in that list. For computational efficiency, ideally we should cache the run of each predefined regex against each input string in the examples before the learning session starts. That way, we avoid recomputing it in each call of RegexPosition semantics and its witness functions. We avoid such caching in this tutorial for simplicity of presentation. Here’s a witness function for rr: Regex[] UsefulRegexes = { new Regex(@"\w+"), // Word new Regex(@"\d+"), // Number // ... }; // For efficiency, this function should be invoked only once for each input string before the learning session starts static void BuildStringMatches(string x, out List<Tuple<Match, Regex>>[] leftMatches, out List<Tuple<Match, Regex>>[] rightMatches) { leftMatches = new List<Tuple<Match, Regex>>[inp.Length + 1]; rightMatches = new List<Tuple<Match, Regex>>[inp.Length + 1]; for (int p = 0; p <= x.Length; ++p) { leftMatches[p] = new List<Tuple<Match, Regex>>(); rightMatches[p] = new List<Tuple<Match, Regex>>(); } foreach (Regex r in UsefulRegexes) { foreach (Match m in r.Matches(x)) { leftMatches[m.Index + m.Length].Add(Tuple.Create(m, r)); rightMatches[m.Index].Add(Tuple.Create(m, r)); } } } [WitnessFunction("RegexPosition", 1)] DisjunctiveExamplesSpec WitnessRegexPair(GrammarRule rule, DisjunctiveExamplesSpec spec) { var result = new Dictionary<State, IEnumerable<object>>(); foreach (var example in spec.DisjunctiveExamples) { State inputState = example.Key; var x = (string) inputState[rule.Body[0]]; List<Tuple<Match, Regex>>[] leftMatches, rightMatches; BuildStringMatches(x, out leftMatches, out rightMatches); var regexes = new List<Tuple<Regex, Regex>>(); foreach (int? pos in example.Value) { regexes.AddRange(from l in leftMatches[pos.Value] from r in rightMatches[pos.Value] select Tuple.Create(l.Item2, r.Item2)); } if (regexes.Count == 0) return null; result[inputState] = regexes; } return new DisjunctiveExamplesSpec(result); }  #### Conditional witness functions The last witness function in this tutorial witnesses a match index k for each regex pair in RegexPosition. To write this witness function, an outer spec on RegexPosition alone is insufficient: we can only write it for each individual regex pair, but not for all possible regex pairs at once. Thus, our witness function for k is conditional on rr: in addition to an outer spec, it takes an additional input – a spec on its prerequisite parameter rr. In general, the prerequisite spec can be of any kind that provides your witness function any useful information. Typically, an ExampleSpec (i.e., a concrete value of prerequisite – in this case rr) is the most useful and common prerequisite spec. We use ExampleSpec here to deduce possible indices k for each regex pair in a manner similar to deducing absolute positions above. [WitnessFunction("RegexPosition", 2, DependsOnParameters = new[] { 1 })] DisjunctiveExamplesSpec WitnessKForRegexPair(GrammarRule rule, DisjunctiveExamplesSpec spec, ExampleSpec rrSpec) { var result = new Dictionary<State, IEnumerable<object>>(); foreach (var example in spec.DisjunctiveExamples) { State inputState = example.Key; var x = (string) inputState[rule.Body[0]]; var regexPair = (Tuple<Regex, Regex>) rrSpec.Examples[inputState]; Regex left = regexPair.Item1; Regex right = regexPair.Item2; var rightMatches = right.Matches(x).Cast<Match>().ToDictionary(m => m.Index); var matchPositions = new List<int>(); foreach (Match m in left.Matches(x)) { if (rightMatches.ContainsKey(m.Index + m.Length)) matchPositions.Add(m.Index + m.Length); } var ks = new HashSet<int?>(); foreach (int? pos in example.Value) { int occurrence = matchPositions.BinarySearch(pos.Value); if (occurrence < 0) continue; ks.Add(occurrence); ks.Add(occurrence - matchPositions.Count); } if (ks.Count == 0) return null; result[inputState] = ks.Cast<object>(); } return new DisjunctiveExamplesSpec(result); }  ### Learning with witness functions After completing these four witness functions, we must make one final change in order for learning to happen – we must create an instance of WitnessFunctions and communicate it to the synthesis engine at learning time. To do that, we override a standard configuration of a SynthesisEngine, providing our WitnessFunctions to the DeductiveSynthesis strategy. var engine = new SynthesisEngine(grammar, new SynthesisEngine.Config { Strategies = new ISynthesisStrategy[] { new DeductiveSynthesis(witnessFunctions), } });  After making this change, our LearnGrammar call succeeds, and we get back a set of several dozens possible consistent programs! ## Ranking Example are inherently an ambiguous form of specification. A user-provided spec of several input-output examples usually produces a huge set of DSL programs that are consistent with it (often billions of them!). To build a useful application, a synthesis-based technology has to somehow pick one “most likely” program from such a set. Many disambiguation techniques exist; in this tutorial, we show the most common one – ranking. Ranking assigns each program a score – an approximation to its “likelihood” of being a desired program. For instance, string extraction based on absolute indices is less common than extraction based on regular expressions, therefore the former should be assigned a smaller score than the latter. ### Features In PROSE, scores are represented using computed features. A feature is a named attribute on a program AST, computed using provided feature calculator functions. A feature can be complete, which means that it must be defined with some value for each possible DSL program, or incomplete if it only exists on some DSL programs. A feature is defined in a DSL as follows: @complete feature double Score = SubstringExtraction.ScoreCalculator;  Here Score is its name, double is its type, and ScoreCalculator is a feature class that holds calculator functions. To implement this feature class, we inherit from Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.Feature<T>: using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis; using Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.AST; namespace SubstringExtraction { class ScoreCalculator : Feature<double> { public ScoreCalculator(Grammar grammar): base(grammar, "Score", isComplete: true) { } /// <summary> /// Calculates the value of the feature represented by the current instance /// for a given <see cref="T:Microsoft.ProgramSynthesis.AST.VariableNode" /> /// program <paramref name="variable" />. /// </summary> protected override double GetFeatureValueForVariable(VariableNode variable) => 0; } }  Given a ProgramNode p, you can access the value of Score on this program as follows: var scoreFeature = new ScoreCalculator(grammar); Console.WriteLine(p.GetFeatureValue(scoreFeature));  Note: Since we defined Score as a complete feature, we had to override its GetFeatureValueForVariable method to provide an implementation of this feature computation on variable ASTs such as x. #### Feature calculators A feature calculator is defined for a grammar rule. There are four ways to define a calculator: based on recursive feature values, based on program syntax (given a ProgramNode or its children), or based on literal values. ##### Calculation from recursive values The most common feature definitions are inductive, recursively defined over the grammar. For instance, a score for RegexPosition(x, rr, k) would be defined as a formula over a score for rr and a score for k. Such feature calculators take as input recursively computed values of the same feature on parameters of a current program AST: [FeatureCalculator("RegexPosition", Method = CalculationMethod.FromRecursiveFeatureValues)] double ScoreRegexPosition(double inScore, double rrScore, double kScore) => rrScore * kScore;  ##### Calculation from program syntax When recursively computed feature values are insufficient, you can take into account the entire syntax of a program AST. There are two ways to define such a calculator: (a) take as input a ProgramNode to score, or (b) take as input several individual ProgramNode instances representing ASTs of its parameter programs. Hint: You can specify a specific subclass of ProgramNode as a parameter, if you know that your grammar structure only allows some specific AST kinds at this place. [FeatureCalculator("AbsolutePosition", Method = CalculationMethod.FromChildrenNodes)] double ScoreAbsolutePosition(VariableNode x, LiteralNode k) { double score = (double) x.GetFeatureValue(this) + (double) k.GetFeatureValue(this); int kValue = (int) k.Value; if (Math.Abs(k) <= 1) score *= 10; return score; } // Alternatively: [FeatureCalculator("AbsolutePosition", Method = CalculationMethod.FromProgramNode)] double ScoreAbsolutePosition(ProgramNode p) { ... }  ##### Calculation from literals An inductively defined computed feature needs a basic case – its value on literal program ASTs. Feature calculators on terminal rules can take as input simply the value of a literal in a LiteralNode currently being scored. Instead of an operator name, you provide the name of the corresponding terminal symbol in the [FeatureCalculator] attribute: [FeatureCalculator("k", Method = CalculationMethod.FromLiteral)] double KScore(int k) => 1.0 / (1 + Math.Abs(k));  ### Learning top programs Our SubstringExtraction grammar needs a Score calculator for each rule (including standard library rules like PositionPair). After you define all of them, you can extract$k$top-ranked programs out of the candidates returned by learning: ProgramSet learned = engine.LearnGrammar(spec); var scoreFeature = new ScoreCalculator(grammar); IEnumerable<ProgramNode> best = learned.TopK(scoreFeature, k: 1);  The method TopK assumes that your feature has a numerical type (convertible to double). It returns an descendingly ordered sequence of programs (greater score values are better). If several programs have the same score, they are all returned in the sequence, thus it may hold more programs than the requested value of$k$. Instead of ordering a learned set of programs, you can instead learn only$k\$ topmost-ranked programs in the first place, if you are not interested in the entire set of candidates. Such a request significantly improves learning performance because PROSE can perform aggressive filtering in the middle of the learning process.

IEnumerable<ProgramNode> bestLearned = engine.LearnGrammarTopK(spec, scoreFeature, k: 1);


Important: in order for both TopK methods to work soundly, your feature must be monotonic over the grammar structure. In other words, greater-scored subexpressions should produce greater-scored expressions.

We can now take the best program and apply it on new user-provided data. Assuming scoring functions similar to FlashFill, this program will be “Extract the first word”:

ProgramNode p = bestLearned.First();
Console.WriteLine(p);
/*  Substring(x, PositionPair(RegexPosition(x, RegexPair(//, /\w+/), 0), RegexPosition(x, RegexPair(/\w+/, //), 0))  */
State input = State.Create(grammar.InputSymbol, "Program Synthesis");
Console.WriteLine(p.Invoke(input));
/*  Program  */