Azure Batch Service


Azure Batch Service is a cloud-scale job-scheduling service. Users can submit a parallel job consisting of multiple tasks with a given set of dependencies and Azure Batch Service will execute them on Azure, in dependency order, exploiting as much parallelism as possible between independent tasks. Batch is a popular service, managing over hundreds of thousands of VMs on Azure.

Integrating scheduling with virtual machine (VM) management, Azure Batch Service supports auto-scaling the number of VMs created, spinning up or down according to the needs of the job. This differs from many other schedulers—like Yarn or Mesos, for example—that must be installed on a pre-created set of VMs.


The Batch team wanted to invest in a new microservices-based architecture that would reliably scale to meet the demands of the service. The complex responsive design demanded that each microservice be able to:

  • Process requests asynchronously as they arrived.
  • Support cancellation of an in-flight request, enabling quick turnaround for auto-scaling.
  • Be resilient to failures of VMs hosting the service.


Coding three of their core microservices with Coyote, the team used Coyote’s state machines programming model for fully asynchronous, non-blocking computation. The team also wrote detailed functional specifications—as well as models of external services—to allow for exhaustive testing of concurrent behaviors and failures. These services totalled to more than 100,000 lines of code.

Coyote’s key advantages

The Batch team reported several key advantages of developing and testing their code using Coyote.

  • Faster development time: adding a new feature for supporting low-priority VMs to the Coyote code took just one developer month. The same feature took six developer months in the legacy code. Coyote design and testing added agility and allowed progress at a much faster pace.
  • Coyote removed reliance on overly complex, and often inadequate, unit tests for each small component. The Batch team reported that Coyote’s test coverage for end-to-end scenarios was unheard of previously.
  • Features were developed in a test environment to first pass the Coyote tester. When dropped in production, they simply worked from the start.
  • Coyote gave developers a significant confidence boost by providing full failover and concurrency testing at each check-in, right on their desktops as the code was written.

Read more about it in this arXiv technical paper. (Note that the paper still refers to P#, the name of the previous incarnation of Coyote.)