Keysight Drivers

Classes:

Keysight33210A(name, address[, silent])

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33210A waveform generator.

Keysight33250A(name, address[, silent])

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33250A waveform generator.

Keysight33511B(name, address[, silent])

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33511B waveform generator.

Keysight33512B(name, address[, silent])

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33512B waveform generator.

Keysight33522B(name, address[, silent])

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33522B waveform generator.

Keysight33622A(name, address[, silent])

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33622A waveform generator.

Keysight33xxxOutputChannel(parent, name, channum)

Class to hold the output channel of a Keysight 33xxxx waveform generator.

Keysight33xxxSyncChannel(parent, name)

Class to hold the sync output of a Keysight 33xxxx waveform generator.

Keysight34410A(name, address[, silent])

This is the qcodes driver for the Keysight 34410A Multimeter

Keysight34411A(name, address[, silent])

This is the qcodes driver for the Keysight 34411A Multimeter

Keysight34460A(name, address[, silent])

This is the qcodes driver for the Keysight 34460A Multimeter

Keysight34461A(name, address[, silent])

This is the qcodes driver for the Keysight 34461A Multimeter

Keysight34465A(name, address[, silent])

This is the qcodes driver for the Keysight 34465A Multimeter

Keysight34470A(name, address[, silent])

This is the qcodes driver for the Keysight 34470A Multimeter

Keysight34934A(parent, name, slot)

Create an instance for module 34933A.

Keysight34980A(name, address[, terminator])

QCodes driver for 34980A switch/measure unit

Keysight34980ASwitchMatrixSubModule(parent, ...)

A base class for Switch Matrix submodules for the 34980A systems.

KeysightB1500(name, address, **kwargs)

Driver for Keysight B1500 Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer.

KeysightB1500CVSweepMeasurement(name, ...)

CV sweep measurement outputs a list of primary (capacitance) and secondary parameter (disipation).

KeysightB1500CVSweeper(parent, name, **kwargs)

KeysightB1500Correction(parent, name, **kwargs)

A Keysight B1520A CMU submodule for performing open/short/load corrections.

KeysightB1500FrequencyList(parent, name, ...)

A frequency list for open/short/load correction for Keysight B1520A CMU.

KeysightB1500IVSweeper(parent, name, **kwargs)

KeysightB1511B(parent, name, slot_nr, **kwargs)

Driver for Keysight B1511B Source/Monitor Unit module for B1500 Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer.

KeysightB1517A(parent, name, slot_nr, **kwargs)

Driver for Keysight B1517A Source/Monitor Unit module for B1500 Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer.

KeysightB1520A(parent, name, slot_nr, **kwargs)

Driver for Keysight B1520A Capacitance Measurement Unit module for B1500 Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer.

KeysightB1530A(parent, name, slot_nr, **kwargs)

Driver for Keysight B1530A Waveform Generator/Fast Measurement Unit module for B1500 Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer.

KeysightB2200(name, address, **kwargs)

QCodes driver for B2200

KeysightB2201(name, address, **kwargs)

QCodes driver for B2201

KeysightB2962A(name, address, **kwargs)

This is the qcodes driver for the Keysight B2962A 6.5 Digit Low Noise Power Source

KeysightB2962AChannel(parent, name, chan)

param parent:

The instrument to which the channel is attached.

KeysightE4980A(name, address[, terminator])

QCodes driver for E4980A Precision LCR Meter

KeysightE4980ACorrection(parent, name)

Module for correction settings.

KeysightE4980AMeasurementPair(name, names, ...)

Data class for E4980A measurement, which will always return two items at once.

KeysightE4980AMeasurements()

All the measurement function for E4980A LCR meter.

KeysightInfiniium(name, address[, timeout, ...])

This is the QCoDeS driver for the Keysight Infiniium oscilloscopes

KeysightInfiniiumBoundMeasurement(parent, ...)

Initialize measurement subsystem bound to a specific channel

KeysightInfiniiumChannel(parent, name, ...)

Initialize an infiniium channel.

KeysightInfiniiumFunction(parent, name, ...)

Initialize an infiniium channel.

KeysightInfiniiumUnboundMeasurement(parent, ...)

Initialize measurement subsystem where target is set by the parameter source.

KeysightM9336A(name, address[, options, ...])

AWG Driver for the Keysight M9336A PXIe I/Q Arbitrary Waveform Generator.

KeysightM9336AAWGChannel(parent, name, chan)

Represent the three channels of the Keysight KTM Awg driver.

KeysightM960x(name, address[, options, dll_path])

Provide a wrapper for the Keysight KtM960x DAC.

KeysightN5173B(name, address, **kwargs)

KeysightN5183B(name, address, **kwargs)

KeysightN5222B(name, address, **kwargs)

Driver for Keysight PNA N5222B.

KeysightN5230C(name, address, **kwargs)

KeysightN5232B(name, address, **kwargs)

KeysightN5245A(name, address, **kwargs)

KeysightN6705B(name, address, **kwargs)

KeysightN6705BChannel(parent, name, chan)

KeysightN9030B(name, address, **kwargs)

Driver for Keysight N9030B PXA signal analyzer.

KeysightN9030BPhaseNoiseMode(parent, name, ...)

Phase Noise Mode for Keysight N9030B instrument.

KeysightN9030BSpectrumAnalyzerMode(parent, ...)

Spectrum Analyzer Mode for Keysight N9030B instrument.

KeysightP9374A(name, address, **kwargs)

KeysightPNAPort(parent, name, port, ...)

Allow operations on individual PNA ports.

KeysightPNATrace(parent, name, trace_name, ...)

Allow operations on individual PNA traces.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.Keysight.Keysight33210A(name: str, address: str, silent: bool = False, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: WaveformGenerator_33XXX

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33210A waveform generator.

Parameters:
  • name – The name of the instrument used internally by QCoDeS. Must be unique.

  • address – The VISA resource name.

  • silent – If True, no connect message is printed.

Methods:

__del__()

Close the instrument and remove its instance record.

__getitem__(key)

Delegate instrument['name'] to parameter or function 'name'.

__getstate__()

Prevent pickling instruments, and give a nice error message.

__repr__()

Simplified repr giving just the class and name.

add_function(name, **kwargs)

Bind one Function to this instrument.

add_parameter(name[, parameter_class])

Bind one Parameter to this instrument.

add_submodule(name, submodule)

Bind one submodule to this instrument.

ask(cmd)

Write a command string to the hardware and return a response.

ask_raw(cmd)

Low-level interface to visa_handle.ask.

call(func_name, *args)

Shortcut for calling a function from its name.

close()

Disconnect and irreversibly tear down the instrument.

close_all()

Try to close all instruments registered in _all_instruments This is handy for use with atexit to ensure that all instruments are closed when a python session is closed.

connect_message([idn_param, begin_time])

Print a standard message on initial connection to an instrument.

device_clear()

Clear the buffers of the device

error()

Return the first error message in the queue.

exist(name[, instrument_class])

Check if an instrument with a given names exists (i.e. is already instantiated).

find_instrument(name[, instrument_class])

Find an existing instrument by name.

flush_error_queue([verbose])

Clear the instrument error queue, and prints it.

get(param_name)

Shortcut for getting a parameter from its name.

get_component(full_name)

Recursively get a component of the instrument by full_name.

get_idn()

Parse a standard VISA *IDN? response into an ID dict.

instances()

Get all currently defined instances of this instrument class.

invalidate_cache()

Invalidate the cache of all parameters on the instrument.

is_valid(instr_instance)

Check if a given instance of an instrument is valid: if an instrument has been closed, its instance is not longer a "valid" instrument.

load_metadata(metadata)

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

print_readable_snapshot([update, max_chars])

Prints a readable version of the snapshot.

record_instance(instance)

Record (a weak ref to) an instance in a class's instance list.

remove_instance(instance)

Remove a particular instance from the record.

set(param_name, value)

Shortcut for setting a parameter from its name and new value.

set_address(address)

Set the address for this instrument.

set_terminator(terminator)

Change the read terminator to use.

snapshot([update])

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata.

snapshot_base([update, params_to_skip_update])

State of the instrument as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

validate_status([verbose])

Validate the values of all gettable parameters

write(cmd)

Write a command string with NO response to the hardware.

write_raw(cmd)

Low-level interface to visa_handle.write.

Attributes:

ancestors

Ancestors in the form of a list of InstrumentBase

delegate_attr_dicts

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

delegate_attr_objects

A list of names (strings) of objects which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose attributes should be passed through to self.

full_name

Full name of the instrument.

label

Nicely formatted label of the instrument.

name

Full name of the instrument

name_parts

A list of all the parts of the instrument name from root_instrument() to the current InstrumentModule.

omit_delegate_attrs

A list of attribute names (strings) to not delegate to any other dictionary or object.

parent

The parent instrument.

root_instrument

The topmost parent of this module.

short_name

Short name of the instrument.

visa_handle

The VISA resource used by this instrument.

resource_manager

The VISA resource manager used by this instrument.

parameters

All the parameters supported by this instrument.

functions

All the functions supported by this instrument.

submodules

All the submodules of this instrument such as channel lists or logical groupings of parameters.

instrument_modules

All the InstrumentModule of this instrument Usually populated via add_submodule().

__del__() None

Close the instrument and remove its instance record.

__getitem__(key: str) Callable[[...], Any] | Parameter

Delegate instrument[‘name’] to parameter or function ‘name’.

__getstate__() None

Prevent pickling instruments, and give a nice error message.

__repr__() str

Simplified repr giving just the class and name.

add_function(name: str, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Function to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real function of the instrument.

This functionality is meant for simple cases, principally things that map to simple commands like *RST (reset) or those with just a few arguments. It requires a fixed argument count, and positional args only.

Note

We do not recommend the usage of Function for any new driver. Function does not add any significant features over a method defined on the class.

Parameters:
  • name – How the Function will be stored within instrument.Functions and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.call(func_name, *args) etc.

  • **kwargs – constructor kwargs for Function

Raises:

KeyError – If this instrument already has a function with this name.

add_parameter(name: str, parameter_class: type[ParameterBase] | None = None, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Parameter to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real parameter of the instrument.

In this sense, parameters are the state variables of the instrument, anything the user can set and/or get.

Parameters:
  • name – How the parameter will be stored within parameters and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.set(param_name, value) etc.

  • parameter_class – You can construct the parameter out of any class. Default parameters.Parameter.

  • **kwargs – Constructor arguments for parameter_class.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If this instrument already has a parameter with this name and the parameter being replaced is not an abstract parameter.

  • ValueError – If there is an existing abstract parameter and the unit of the new parameter is inconsistent with the existing one.

add_submodule(name: str, submodule: InstrumentModule | ChannelTuple) None

Bind one submodule to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ method for every submodule of the instrument.

Submodules can effectively be considered as instruments within the main instrument, and should at minimum be snapshottable. For example, they can be used to either store logical groupings of parameters, which may or may not be repeated, or channel lists. They should either be an instance of an InstrumentModule or a ChannelTuple.

Parameters:
  • name – How the submodule will be stored within instrument.submodules and also how it can be addressed.

  • submodule – The submodule to be stored.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If this instrument already contains a submodule with this name.

  • TypeError – If the submodule that we are trying to add is not an instance of an Metadatable object.

property ancestors: tuple[InstrumentBase, ...]

Ancestors in the form of a list of InstrumentBase

The list starts with the current module then the parent and the parents parent until the root instrument is reached.

ask(cmd: str) str

Write a command string to the hardware and return a response.

Subclasses that transform cmd should override this method, and in it call super().ask(new_cmd). Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should instead override ask_raw.

Parameters:

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

Returns:

response

Raises:

Exception – Wraps any underlying exception with extra context, including the command and the instrument.

ask_raw(cmd: str) str

Low-level interface to visa_handle.ask.

Parameters:

cmd – The command to send to the instrument.

Returns:

The instrument’s response.

Return type:

str

call(func_name: str, *args: Any) Any

Shortcut for calling a function from its name.

Parameters:
  • func_name – The name of a function of this instrument.

  • *args – any arguments to the function.

Returns:

The return value of the function.

close() None

Disconnect and irreversibly tear down the instrument.

classmethod close_all() None

Try to close all instruments registered in _all_instruments This is handy for use with atexit to ensure that all instruments are closed when a python session is closed.

Examples

>>> atexit.register(qc.Instrument.close_all())
connect_message(idn_param: str = 'IDN', begin_time: float | None = None) None

Print a standard message on initial connection to an instrument.

Parameters:
  • idn_param – Name of parameter that returns ID dict. Default IDN.

  • begin_timetime.time() when init started. Default is self._t0, set at start of Instrument.__init__.

delegate_attr_dicts: ClassVar[list[str]] = ['parameters', 'functions', 'submodules']

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

delegate_attr_objects: ClassVar[list[str]] = []

A list of names (strings) of objects which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose attributes should be passed through to self.

device_clear() None

Clear the buffers of the device

error() tuple[int, str]

Return the first error message in the queue. It also clears it from the error queue.

Up to 20 errors can be stored in the instrument’s error queue. Error retrieval is first-in-first-out (FIFO).

If more than 20 errors have occurred, the most recent error stored in the queue is replaced with -350,”Queue overflow”. No additional errors are stored until you remove errors from the queue. If no errors have occurred when you read the error queue, the instrument responds with +0,”No error”.

Returns:

The error code and the error message.

static exist(name: str, instrument_class: type[Instrument] | None = None) bool

Check if an instrument with a given names exists (i.e. is already instantiated).

Parameters:
  • name – Name of the instrument.

  • instrument_class – The type of instrument you are looking for.

classmethod find_instrument(name: str, instrument_class: type[T] | None = None) T | Instrument

Find an existing instrument by name.

Parameters:
  • name – Name of the instrument.

  • instrument_class – The type of instrument you are looking for.

Returns:

The instrument found.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If no instrument of that name was found, or if its reference is invalid (dead).

  • TypeError – If a specific class was requested but a different type was found.

flush_error_queue(verbose: bool = True) None

Clear the instrument error queue, and prints it.

Parameters:

verbose – If true, the error messages are printed. Default: True.

property full_name: str

Full name of the instrument.

For an InstrumentModule this includes all parents separated by _

get(param_name: str) Any

Shortcut for getting a parameter from its name.

Parameters:

param_name – The name of a parameter of this instrument.

Returns:

The current value of the parameter.

get_component(full_name: str) MetadatableWithName

Recursively get a component of the instrument by full_name.

Parameters:

name – The name of the component to get.

Returns:

The component with the given name.

Raises:

KeyError – If the component does not exist.

get_idn() dict[str, str | None]

Parse a standard VISA *IDN? response into an ID dict.

Even though this is the VISA standard, it applies to various other types as well, such as IPInstruments, so it is included here in the Instrument base class.

Override this if your instrument does not support *IDN? or returns a nonstandard IDN string. This string is supposed to be a comma-separated list of vendor, model, serial, and firmware, but semicolon and colon are also common separators so we accept them here as well.

Returns:

A dict containing vendor, model, serial, and firmware.

classmethod instances() list[T]

Get all currently defined instances of this instrument class.

You can use this to get the objects back if you lose track of them, and it’s also used by the test system to find objects to test against.

Returns:

A list of instances.

invalidate_cache() None

Invalidate the cache of all parameters on the instrument. Calling this method will recursively mark the cache of all parameters on the instrument and any parameter on instrument modules as invalid.

This is useful if you have performed manual operations (e.g. using the frontpanel) which changes the state of the instrument outside QCoDeS.

This in turn means that the next snapshot of the instrument will trigger a (potentially slow) reread of all parameters of the instrument if you pass update=None to snapshot.

static is_valid(instr_instance: Instrument) bool

Check if a given instance of an instrument is valid: if an instrument has been closed, its instance is not longer a “valid” instrument.

Parameters:

instr_instance – Instance of an Instrument class or its subclass.

property label: str

Nicely formatted label of the instrument.

load_metadata(metadata: Mapping[str, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters:

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Full name of the instrument

This is equivalent to full_name() for backwards compatibility.

property name_parts: list[str]

A list of all the parts of the instrument name from root_instrument() to the current InstrumentModule.

omit_delegate_attrs: ClassVar[list[str]] = []

A list of attribute names (strings) to not delegate to any other dictionary or object.

property parent: InstrumentBase | None

The parent instrument. By default, this is None. Any SubInstrument should subclass this to return the parent instrument.

print_readable_snapshot(update: bool = False, max_chars: int = 80) None

Prints a readable version of the snapshot. The readable snapshot includes the name, value and unit of each parameter. A convenience function to quickly get an overview of the status of an instrument.

Parameters:
  • update – If True, update the state by querying the instrument. If False, just use the latest values in memory. This argument gets passed to the snapshot function.

  • max_chars – the maximum number of characters per line. The readable snapshot will be cropped if this value is exceeded. Defaults to 80 to be consistent with default terminal width.

classmethod record_instance(instance: Instrument) None

Record (a weak ref to) an instance in a class’s instance list.

Also records the instance in list of all instruments, and verifies that there are no other instruments with the same name.

This method is called after initialization of the instrument is completed.

Parameters:

instance – Instance to record.

Raises:

KeyError – If another instance with the same name is already present.

classmethod remove_instance(instance: Instrument) None

Remove a particular instance from the record.

Parameters:

instance – The instance to remove

property root_instrument: InstrumentBase

The topmost parent of this module.

For the root_instrument this is self.

set(param_name: str, value: Any) None

Shortcut for setting a parameter from its name and new value.

Parameters:
  • param_name – The name of a parameter of this instrument.

  • value – The new value to set.

set_address(address: str) None

Set the address for this instrument.

Parameters:

address – The visa resource name to use to connect. The address should be the actual address and just that. If you wish to change the backend for VISA, use the self.visalib attribute (and then call this function).

set_terminator(terminator: str | None) None

Change the read terminator to use.

Parameters:

terminator – Character(s) to look for at the end of a read and to end each write command with. eg. \r\n. If None the terminator will not be set.

property short_name: str

Short name of the instrument.

For an InstrumentModule this does not include any parent names.

snapshot(update: bool | None = False) dict[str, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters:

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns:

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: bool | None = True, params_to_skip_update: Sequence[str] | None = None) dict[Any, Any]

State of the instrument as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

Parameters:
  • update – If True, update the state by querying the instrument. If None only update if the state is known to be invalid. If False, just use the latest values in memory and never update.

  • params_to_skip_update – List of parameter names that will be skipped in update even if update is True. This is useful if you have parameters that are slow to update but can be updated in a different way (as in the qdac). If you want to skip the update of certain parameters in all snapshots, use the snapshot_get attribute of those parameters instead.

Returns:

base snapshot

Return type:

dict

validate_status(verbose: bool = False) None

Validate the values of all gettable parameters

The validation is done for all parameters that have both a get and set method.

Parameters:

verbose – If True, then information about the parameters that are being check is printed.

write(cmd: str) None

Write a command string with NO response to the hardware.

Subclasses that transform cmd should override this method, and in it call super().write(new_cmd). Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should instead override write_raw.

Parameters:

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

Raises:

Exception – Wraps any underlying exception with extra context, including the command and the instrument.

write_raw(cmd: str) None

Low-level interface to visa_handle.write.

Parameters:

cmd – The command to send to the instrument.

visabackend: str = visabackend
visa_handle: pyvisa.resources.MessageBasedResource = visa_handle

The VISA resource used by this instrument.

visalib: str | None = visalib
parameters: dict[str, ParameterBase] = {}

All the parameters supported by this instrument. Usually populated via add_parameter().

functions: dict[str, Function] = {}

All the functions supported by this instrument. Usually populated via add_function().

submodules: dict[str, InstrumentModule | ChannelTuple] = {}

All the submodules of this instrument such as channel lists or logical groupings of parameters. Usually populated via add_submodule().

instrument_modules: dict[str, InstrumentModule] = {}

All the InstrumentModule of this instrument Usually populated via add_submodule().

log: InstrumentLoggerAdapter = get_instrument_logger(self, __name__)
metadata: dict[str, Any] = {}
resource_manager = resource_manager

The VISA resource manager used by this instrument.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.Keysight.Keysight33250A(name: str, address: str, silent: bool = False, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: WaveformGenerator_33XXX

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33250A waveform generator.

Parameters:
  • name – The name of the instrument used internally by QCoDeS. Must be unique.

  • address – The VISA resource name.

  • silent – If True, no connect message is printed.

Methods:

__del__()

Close the instrument and remove its instance record.

__getitem__(key)

Delegate instrument['name'] to parameter or function 'name'.

__getstate__()

Prevent pickling instruments, and give a nice error message.

__repr__()

Simplified repr giving just the class and name.

add_function(name, **kwargs)

Bind one Function to this instrument.

add_parameter(name[, parameter_class])

Bind one Parameter to this instrument.

add_submodule(name, submodule)

Bind one submodule to this instrument.

ask(cmd)

Write a command string to the hardware and return a response.

ask_raw(cmd)

Low-level interface to visa_handle.ask.

call(func_name, *args)

Shortcut for calling a function from its name.

close()

Disconnect and irreversibly tear down the instrument.

close_all()

Try to close all instruments registered in _all_instruments This is handy for use with atexit to ensure that all instruments are closed when a python session is closed.

connect_message([idn_param, begin_time])

Print a standard message on initial connection to an instrument.

device_clear()

Clear the buffers of the device

error()

Return the first error message in the queue.

exist(name[, instrument_class])

Check if an instrument with a given names exists (i.e. is already instantiated).

find_instrument(name[, instrument_class])

Find an existing instrument by name.

flush_error_queue([verbose])

Clear the instrument error queue, and prints it.

get(param_name)

Shortcut for getting a parameter from its name.

get_component(full_name)

Recursively get a component of the instrument by full_name.

get_idn()

Parse a standard VISA *IDN? response into an ID dict.

instances()

Get all currently defined instances of this instrument class.

invalidate_cache()

Invalidate the cache of all parameters on the instrument.

is_valid(instr_instance)

Check if a given instance of an instrument is valid: if an instrument has been closed, its instance is not longer a "valid" instrument.

load_metadata(metadata)

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

print_readable_snapshot([update, max_chars])

Prints a readable version of the snapshot.

record_instance(instance)

Record (a weak ref to) an instance in a class's instance list.

remove_instance(instance)

Remove a particular instance from the record.

set(param_name, value)

Shortcut for setting a parameter from its name and new value.

set_address(address)

Set the address for this instrument.

set_terminator(terminator)

Change the read terminator to use.

snapshot([update])

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata.

snapshot_base([update, params_to_skip_update])

State of the instrument as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

validate_status([verbose])

Validate the values of all gettable parameters

write(cmd)

Write a command string with NO response to the hardware.

write_raw(cmd)

Low-level interface to visa_handle.write.

Attributes:

ancestors

Ancestors in the form of a list of InstrumentBase

delegate_attr_dicts

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

delegate_attr_objects

A list of names (strings) of objects which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose attributes should be passed through to self.

full_name

Full name of the instrument.

label

Nicely formatted label of the instrument.

name

Full name of the instrument

name_parts

A list of all the parts of the instrument name from root_instrument() to the current InstrumentModule.

omit_delegate_attrs

A list of attribute names (strings) to not delegate to any other dictionary or object.

parent

The parent instrument.

root_instrument

The topmost parent of this module.

short_name

Short name of the instrument.

visa_handle

The VISA resource used by this instrument.

resource_manager

The VISA resource manager used by this instrument.

parameters

All the parameters supported by this instrument.

functions

All the functions supported by this instrument.

submodules

All the submodules of this instrument such as channel lists or logical groupings of parameters.

instrument_modules

All the InstrumentModule of this instrument Usually populated via add_submodule().

__del__() None

Close the instrument and remove its instance record.

__getitem__(key: str) Callable[[...], Any] | Parameter

Delegate instrument[‘name’] to parameter or function ‘name’.

__getstate__() None

Prevent pickling instruments, and give a nice error message.

__repr__() str

Simplified repr giving just the class and name.

add_function(name: str, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Function to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real function of the instrument.

This functionality is meant for simple cases, principally things that map to simple commands like *RST (reset) or those with just a few arguments. It requires a fixed argument count, and positional args only.

Note

We do not recommend the usage of Function for any new driver. Function does not add any significant features over a method defined on the class.

Parameters:
  • name – How the Function will be stored within instrument.Functions and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.call(func_name, *args) etc.

  • **kwargs – constructor kwargs for Function

Raises:

KeyError – If this instrument already has a function with this name.

add_parameter(name: str, parameter_class: type[ParameterBase] | None = None, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Parameter to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real parameter of the instrument.

In this sense, parameters are the state variables of the instrument, anything the user can set and/or get.

Parameters:
  • name – How the parameter will be stored within parameters and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.set(param_name, value) etc.

  • parameter_class – You can construct the parameter out of any class. Default parameters.Parameter.

  • **kwargs – Constructor arguments for parameter_class.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If this instrument already has a parameter with this name and the parameter being replaced is not an abstract parameter.

  • ValueError – If there is an existing abstract parameter and the unit of the new parameter is inconsistent with the existing one.

add_submodule(name: str, submodule: InstrumentModule | ChannelTuple) None

Bind one submodule to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ method for every submodule of the instrument.

Submodules can effectively be considered as instruments within the main instrument, and should at minimum be snapshottable. For example, they can be used to either store logical groupings of parameters, which may or may not be repeated, or channel lists. They should either be an instance of an InstrumentModule or a ChannelTuple.

Parameters:
  • name – How the submodule will be stored within instrument.submodules and also how it can be addressed.

  • submodule – The submodule to be stored.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If this instrument already contains a submodule with this name.

  • TypeError – If the submodule that we are trying to add is not an instance of an Metadatable object.

property ancestors: tuple[InstrumentBase, ...]

Ancestors in the form of a list of InstrumentBase

The list starts with the current module then the parent and the parents parent until the root instrument is reached.

ask(cmd: str) str

Write a command string to the hardware and return a response.

Subclasses that transform cmd should override this method, and in it call super().ask(new_cmd). Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should instead override ask_raw.

Parameters:

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

Returns:

response

Raises:

Exception – Wraps any underlying exception with extra context, including the command and the instrument.

ask_raw(cmd: str) str

Low-level interface to visa_handle.ask.

Parameters:

cmd – The command to send to the instrument.

Returns:

The instrument’s response.

Return type:

str

call(func_name: str, *args: Any) Any

Shortcut for calling a function from its name.

Parameters:
  • func_name – The name of a function of this instrument.

  • *args – any arguments to the function.

Returns:

The return value of the function.

close() None

Disconnect and irreversibly tear down the instrument.

classmethod close_all() None

Try to close all instruments registered in _all_instruments This is handy for use with atexit to ensure that all instruments are closed when a python session is closed.

Examples

>>> atexit.register(qc.Instrument.close_all())
connect_message(idn_param: str = 'IDN', begin_time: float | None = None) None

Print a standard message on initial connection to an instrument.

Parameters:
  • idn_param – Name of parameter that returns ID dict. Default IDN.

  • begin_timetime.time() when init started. Default is self._t0, set at start of Instrument.__init__.

delegate_attr_dicts: ClassVar[list[str]] = ['parameters', 'functions', 'submodules']

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

delegate_attr_objects: ClassVar[list[str]] = []

A list of names (strings) of objects which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose attributes should be passed through to self.

device_clear() None

Clear the buffers of the device

error() tuple[int, str]

Return the first error message in the queue. It also clears it from the error queue.

Up to 20 errors can be stored in the instrument’s error queue. Error retrieval is first-in-first-out (FIFO).

If more than 20 errors have occurred, the most recent error stored in the queue is replaced with -350,”Queue overflow”. No additional errors are stored until you remove errors from the queue. If no errors have occurred when you read the error queue, the instrument responds with +0,”No error”.

Returns:

The error code and the error message.

static exist(name: str, instrument_class: type[Instrument] | None = None) bool

Check if an instrument with a given names exists (i.e. is already instantiated).

Parameters:
  • name – Name of the instrument.

  • instrument_class – The type of instrument you are looking for.

classmethod find_instrument(name: str, instrument_class: type[T] | None = None) T | Instrument

Find an existing instrument by name.

Parameters:
  • name – Name of the instrument.

  • instrument_class – The type of instrument you are looking for.

Returns:

The instrument found.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If no instrument of that name was found, or if its reference is invalid (dead).

  • TypeError – If a specific class was requested but a different type was found.

flush_error_queue(verbose: bool = True) None

Clear the instrument error queue, and prints it.

Parameters:

verbose – If true, the error messages are printed. Default: True.

property full_name: str

Full name of the instrument.

For an InstrumentModule this includes all parents separated by _

get(param_name: str) Any

Shortcut for getting a parameter from its name.

Parameters:

param_name – The name of a parameter of this instrument.

Returns:

The current value of the parameter.

get_component(full_name: str) MetadatableWithName

Recursively get a component of the instrument by full_name.

Parameters:

name – The name of the component to get.

Returns:

The component with the given name.

Raises:

KeyError – If the component does not exist.

get_idn() dict[str, str | None]

Parse a standard VISA *IDN? response into an ID dict.

Even though this is the VISA standard, it applies to various other types as well, such as IPInstruments, so it is included here in the Instrument base class.

Override this if your instrument does not support *IDN? or returns a nonstandard IDN string. This string is supposed to be a comma-separated list of vendor, model, serial, and firmware, but semicolon and colon are also common separators so we accept them here as well.

Returns:

A dict containing vendor, model, serial, and firmware.

classmethod instances() list[T]

Get all currently defined instances of this instrument class.

You can use this to get the objects back if you lose track of them, and it’s also used by the test system to find objects to test against.

Returns:

A list of instances.

invalidate_cache() None

Invalidate the cache of all parameters on the instrument. Calling this method will recursively mark the cache of all parameters on the instrument and any parameter on instrument modules as invalid.

This is useful if you have performed manual operations (e.g. using the frontpanel) which changes the state of the instrument outside QCoDeS.

This in turn means that the next snapshot of the instrument will trigger a (potentially slow) reread of all parameters of the instrument if you pass update=None to snapshot.

static is_valid(instr_instance: Instrument) bool

Check if a given instance of an instrument is valid: if an instrument has been closed, its instance is not longer a “valid” instrument.

Parameters:

instr_instance – Instance of an Instrument class or its subclass.

property label: str

Nicely formatted label of the instrument.

load_metadata(metadata: Mapping[str, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters:

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Full name of the instrument

This is equivalent to full_name() for backwards compatibility.

property name_parts: list[str]

A list of all the parts of the instrument name from root_instrument() to the current InstrumentModule.

omit_delegate_attrs: ClassVar[list[str]] = []

A list of attribute names (strings) to not delegate to any other dictionary or object.

property parent: InstrumentBase | None

The parent instrument. By default, this is None. Any SubInstrument should subclass this to return the parent instrument.

print_readable_snapshot(update: bool = False, max_chars: int = 80) None

Prints a readable version of the snapshot. The readable snapshot includes the name, value and unit of each parameter. A convenience function to quickly get an overview of the status of an instrument.

Parameters:
  • update – If True, update the state by querying the instrument. If False, just use the latest values in memory. This argument gets passed to the snapshot function.

  • max_chars – the maximum number of characters per line. The readable snapshot will be cropped if this value is exceeded. Defaults to 80 to be consistent with default terminal width.

classmethod record_instance(instance: Instrument) None

Record (a weak ref to) an instance in a class’s instance list.

Also records the instance in list of all instruments, and verifies that there are no other instruments with the same name.

This method is called after initialization of the instrument is completed.

Parameters:

instance – Instance to record.

Raises:

KeyError – If another instance with the same name is already present.

classmethod remove_instance(instance: Instrument) None

Remove a particular instance from the record.

Parameters:

instance – The instance to remove

property root_instrument: InstrumentBase

The topmost parent of this module.

For the root_instrument this is self.

set(param_name: str, value: Any) None

Shortcut for setting a parameter from its name and new value.

Parameters:
  • param_name – The name of a parameter of this instrument.

  • value – The new value to set.

set_address(address: str) None

Set the address for this instrument.

Parameters:

address – The visa resource name to use to connect. The address should be the actual address and just that. If you wish to change the backend for VISA, use the self.visalib attribute (and then call this function).

set_terminator(terminator: str | None) None

Change the read terminator to use.

Parameters:

terminator – Character(s) to look for at the end of a read and to end each write command with. eg. \r\n. If None the terminator will not be set.

property short_name: str

Short name of the instrument.

For an InstrumentModule this does not include any parent names.

snapshot(update: bool | None = False) dict[str, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters:

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns:

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: bool | None = True, params_to_skip_update: Sequence[str] | None = None) dict[Any, Any]

State of the instrument as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

Parameters:
  • update – If True, update the state by querying the instrument. If None only update if the state is known to be invalid. If False, just use the latest values in memory and never update.

  • params_to_skip_update – List of parameter names that will be skipped in update even if update is True. This is useful if you have parameters that are slow to update but can be updated in a different way (as in the qdac). If you want to skip the update of certain parameters in all snapshots, use the snapshot_get attribute of those parameters instead.

Returns:

base snapshot

Return type:

dict

validate_status(verbose: bool = False) None

Validate the values of all gettable parameters

The validation is done for all parameters that have both a get and set method.

Parameters:

verbose – If True, then information about the parameters that are being check is printed.

write(cmd: str) None

Write a command string with NO response to the hardware.

Subclasses that transform cmd should override this method, and in it call super().write(new_cmd). Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should instead override write_raw.

Parameters:

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

Raises:

Exception – Wraps any underlying exception with extra context, including the command and the instrument.

write_raw(cmd: str) None

Low-level interface to visa_handle.write.

Parameters:

cmd – The command to send to the instrument.

visabackend: str = visabackend
visa_handle: pyvisa.resources.MessageBasedResource = visa_handle

The VISA resource used by this instrument.

visalib: str | None = visalib
parameters: dict[str, ParameterBase] = {}

All the parameters supported by this instrument. Usually populated via add_parameter().

functions: dict[str, Function] = {}

All the functions supported by this instrument. Usually populated via add_function().

submodules: dict[str, InstrumentModule | ChannelTuple] = {}

All the submodules of this instrument such as channel lists or logical groupings of parameters. Usually populated via add_submodule().

instrument_modules: dict[str, InstrumentModule] = {}

All the InstrumentModule of this instrument Usually populated via add_submodule().

log: InstrumentLoggerAdapter = get_instrument_logger(self, __name__)
metadata: dict[str, Any] = {}
resource_manager = resource_manager

The VISA resource manager used by this instrument.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.Keysight.Keysight33511B(name: str, address: str, silent: bool = False, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: WaveformGenerator_33XXX

QCoDeS driver for the Keysight 33511B waveform generator.

Parameters:
  • name – The name of the instrument used internally by QCoDeS. Must be unique.

  • address – The VISA resource name.

  • silent – If True, no connect message is printed.

Methods:

__del__()

Close the instrument and remove its instance record.

__getitem__(key)

Delegate instrument['name'] to parameter or function 'name'.

__getstate__()

Prevent pickling instruments, and give a nice error message.

__repr__()

Simplified repr giving just the class and name.

add_function(name, **kwargs)

Bind one Function to this instrument.

add_parameter(name[, parameter_class])

Bind one Parameter to this instrument.

add_submodule(name, submodule)

Bind one submodule to this instrument.

ask(cmd)

Write a command string to the hardware and return a response.

ask_raw(cmd)

Low-level interface to visa_handle.ask.

call(func_name, *args)

Shortcut for calling a function from its name.

close()

Disconnect and irreversibly tear down the instrument.

close_all()

Try to close all instruments registered in _all_instruments This is handy for use with atexit to ensure that all instruments are closed when a python session is closed.

connect_message([idn_param, begin_time])

Print a standard message on initial connection to an instrument.

device_clear()

Clear the buffers of the device

error()

Return the first error message in the queue.

exist(name[, instrument_class])

Check if an instrument with a given names exists (i.e. is already instantiated).

find_instrument(name[, instrument_class])

Find an existing instrument by name.

flush_error_queue([verbose])

Clear the instrument error queue, and prints it.

get(param_name)

Shortcut for getting a parameter from its name.

get_component(full_name)

Recursively get a component of the instrument by full_name.

get_idn()

Parse a standard VISA *IDN? response into an ID dict.

instances()

Get all currently defined instances of this instrument class.

invalidate_cache()

Invalidate the cache of all parameters on the instrument.

is_valid(instr_instance)

Check if a given instance of an instrument is valid: if an instrument has been closed, its instance is not longer a "valid" instrument.

load_metadata(metadata)

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

print_readable_snapshot([update, max_chars])

Prints a readable version of the snapshot.

record_instance(instance)

Record (a weak ref to) an instance in a class's instance list.

remove_instance(instance)

Remove a particular instance from the record.

set(param_name, value)

Shortcut for setting a parameter from its name and new value.

set_address(address)

Set the address for this instrument.

set_terminator(terminator)

Change the read terminator to use.

snapshot([update])

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata.

snapshot_base([update, params_to_skip_update])

State of the instrument as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

validate_status([verbose])

Validate the values of all gettable parameters

write(cmd)

Write a command string with NO response to the hardware.

write_raw(cmd)

Low-level interface to visa_handle.write.

Attributes:

ancestors

Ancestors in the form of a list of InstrumentBase

delegate_attr_dicts

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

delegate_attr_objects

A list of names (strings) of objects which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose attributes should be passed through to self.

full_name

Full name of the instrument.

label

Nicely formatted label of the instrument.

name

Full name of the instrument

name_parts

A list of all the parts of the instrument name from root_instrument() to the current InstrumentModule.

omit_delegate_attrs

A list of attribute names (strings) to not delegate to any other dictionary or object.

parent

The parent instrument.

root_instrument

The topmost parent of this module.

short_name

Short name of the instrument.

visa_handle

The VISA resource used by this instrument.

resource_manager

The VISA resource manager used by this instrument.

parameters

All the parameters supported by this instrument.

functions

All the functions supported by this instrument.

submodules

All the submodules of this instrument such as channel lists or logical groupings of parameters.

instrument_modules

All the InstrumentModule of this instrument Usually populated via add_submodule().

__del__() None

Close the instrument and remove its instance record.

__getitem__(key: str) Callable[[...], Any] | Parameter

Delegate instrument[‘name’] to parameter or function ‘name’.

__getstate__() None

Prevent pickling instruments, and give a nice error message.

__repr__() str

Simplified repr giving just the class and name.

add_function(name: str, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Function to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real function of the instrument.

This functionality is meant for simple cases, principally things that map to simple commands like *RST (reset) or those with just a few arguments. It requires a fixed argument count, and positional args only.

Note

We do not recommend the usage of Function for any new driver. Function does not add any significant features over a method defined on the class.

Parameters:
  • name – How the Function will be stored within instrument.Functions and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.call(func_name, *args) etc.

  • **kwargs – constructor kwargs for Function

Raises:

KeyError – If this instrument already has a function with this name.

add_parameter(name: str, parameter_class: type[ParameterBase] | None = None, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Parameter to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real parameter of the instrument.

In this sense, parameters are the state variables of the instrument, anything the user can set and/or get.

Parameters:
  • name – How the parameter will be stored within parameters and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.set(param_name, value) etc.

  • parameter_class – You can construct the parameter out of any class. Default parameters.Parameter.

  • **kwargs – Constructor arguments for parameter_class.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If this instrument already has a parameter with this name and the parameter being replaced is not an abstract parameter.

  • ValueError – If there is an existing abstract parameter and the unit of the new parameter is inconsistent with the existing one.

add_submodule(name: str, submodule: InstrumentModule | ChannelTuple) None

Bind one submodule to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ method for every submodule of the instrument.

Submodules can effectively be considered as instruments within the main instrument, and should at minimum be snapshottable. For example, they can be used to either store logical groupings of parameters, which may or may not be repeated, or channel lists. They should either be an instance of an InstrumentModule or a ChannelTuple.

Parameters:
  • name – How the submodule will be stored within instrument.submodules and also how it can be addressed.

  • submodule – The submodule to be stored.

Raises:
  • KeyError – If this instrument already contains a submodule with this name.

  • TypeError – If the submodule that we are trying to add is not an instance of an Metadatable object.

property ancestors: tuple[InstrumentBase, ...]

Ancestors in the form of a list of InstrumentBase

The list starts with the current module then the parent and the parents parent until the root instrument is reached.

ask(cmd: str) str

Write a command string to the hardware and return a response.

Subclasses that transform cmd should override this method, and in it call super().ask(new_cmd). Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should instead override ask_raw.

Parameters:

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

Returns:

response

Raises:

Exception – Wraps any underlying exception with extra context, including the command and the instrument.

ask_raw(cmd: str) str

Low-level interface to visa_handle.ask.

Parameters:

cmd – The command to send to the instrument.

Returns:

The instrument’s response.

Return type:

str

call(func_name: str, *args: Any) Any

Shortcut for calling a function from its name.

Parameters:
  • func_name – The name of a function of this instrument.

  • *args – any arguments to the function.

Returns:

The return value of the function.

close() None

Disconnect and irreversibly tear down the instrument.

classmethod close_all() None

Try to close all instruments registered in _all_instruments This is handy for use with atexit to ensure that all instruments are closed when a python session is closed.

Examples

>>> atexit.register(qc.Instrument.close_all())
connect_message(idn_param: str = 'IDN', begin_time: float | None = None) None

Print a standard message on initial connection to an instrument.

Parameters:
  • idn_param – Name of parameter that returns ID dict. Default IDN.

  • begin_timetime.time() when init started. Default is self._t0, set at start of Instrument.__init__.

delegate_attr_dicts: ClassVar[list[str]] = ['parameters', 'functions', 'submodules']

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

delegate_attr_objects: