Using Git LFS and VFS for Git introduction
Git LFS and VFS for Git are solutions for using Git with (large) binary files and large source trees.
Git is very good and keeping track of changes in text-based files like code, but it is not that good at tracking binary files. For instance, if you store a Photoshop image file (PSD) in a repository, with every change, the complete file is stored again in the history. This can make the history of the Git repo very large, which makes a clone of the repository more and more time-consuming.
A solution to work with binary files is using Git LFS (or Git Large File System). This is an extension to Git and must be installed separately, and it can only be used with a repository platform that supports LFS. GitHub.com and Azure DevOps for instance are platforms that have support for LFS.
The way it works in short, is that a placeholder file is stored in the repo with information for the LFS system. It looks something like this:
version https://git-lfs.github.com/spec/v1 oid a747cfbbef63fc0a3f5ffca332ae486ee7bf77c1d1b9b2de02e261ef97d085fe size 4923023
The actual file is stored in a separate storage. This way Git will track changes in this placeholder file, not the large file. The combination of using Git and Git LFS will hide this from the developer though. You will just work with the repository and files as before.
When working with these large files yourself, you'll still see the Git history grown on your own machine, as Git will still start tracking these large files locally, but when you clone the repo, the history is actually pretty small. So it's beneficial for others not working directly on the large files.
Pros of Git LFS
- Uses the end to end Git workflow for all files
- Git LFS supports file locking to avoid conflicts for undiffable assets
- Git LFS is fully supported in Azure DevOps Services
Cons of Git LFS
- Everyone who contributes to the repository needs to install Git LFS
- If not set up properly:
- Binary files committed through Git LFS are not visible as Git will only download the data describing the large file
- Committing large binaries will push the full binary to the repository
- Git cannot merge the changes from two different versions of a binary file; file locking mitigates this
- Azure Repos do not support using SSH for repositories with Git LFS tracked files - for more information see the Git LFS authentication documentation
Installation and use of Git LFS
Go to https://git-lfs.github.com and download and install the setup from there.
For every repository you want to use LFS, you have to go through these steps:
- Setup LFS for the repo:
git lfs install
- Indicate which files have to be considered as large files (or binary files). As an example, to consider all Photoshop files to be large:
git lfs track "*.psd"
There are more fine-grained ways to indicate files in a folder and more. See the Git LFS Documentation.
With these commands a
.gitattribute file is created which contains these settings and must be part of the repository.
From here on you just use the standard Git commands to work in the repository. The rest will be handled by Git and Git LFS.
Common LFS commands
Install Git LFS
git lfs install # windows sudo apt-get git-lfs # linux
See the Git LFS installation instructions for installation on other systems
Track .mp4 files with Git LFS
git lfs track '*.mp4'
.gitattributes file listing the files and patterns to track
*.mp4 filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text docs/images/* filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
List all patterns tracked
git lfs track
List all files tracked
git lfs ls-files
Download files to your working directory
git lfs pull git lfs pull --include="path/to/file"
VFS for Git
Imagine a large repository containing multiple projects, ex. one per feature. As a developer you may only be working on some features, and thus you don't want to download all the projects in the repo. By default, with Git however, cloning the repository means you will download all files/projects.
VFS for Git (or Virtual File System for Git) solves this problem, as it will only download what you need to your local machine, but if you look in the file system, e.g. with Windows Explorer, it will show all the folders and files including the correct file sizes.
The Git platform must support GVFS to make this work. GitHub.com and Azure DevOps both support this out of the box.
Installation and use of VFS for Git
Microsoft create VFS for Git and made it open source. It can be found at https://github.com/microsoft/VFSForGit. It's only available for Windows.
The necessary installers can be found at https://github.com/Microsoft/VFSForGit/releases
On the releases page you'll find two important downloads:
- Git 126.96.36.199 installer, which is a requirement for running VFS for Git. This is not the same as the standard Git for Windows install!
- SetupGVFS installer.
Download those files and install them on your machine.
To be able to use VFS for Git for a repository, a
.gitattributes file needs to be added to the repo with this line in it:
To clone a repository to your machine using VFS for Git you use
gvfs instead of
git like so:
gvfs clone [URL] [dir]
Once this is done, you have a folder which contains a
src folder which contains the contents of the repository. This is done because of a practice to put all outputs of build systems outside this tree. This makes it easier to manage
.gitignore files and to keep Git performant with lots of files.
For working with the repository you just use Git commands as before.
To remove a VFS for Git repository from your machine, make sure the VFS process is stopped and execute this command from the main folder:
This will stop the process and unregister it, after that you can safely remove the folder.