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TPM Replay

This feature provides the ability to replay TPM measurements from a custom-made event log. The primary purpose is for testing operating system features dependent on measurements.


The Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a secure crypto-processor that provides important security-related functionality. While this includes a number of useful capabilities, this firmware feature focuses on testing boot measurements made to the TPM often used for device attestation and other high-level security-sensitive operating system features. The goal is to simplify OS testing of features dependent on TPM measurements, by allowing an exact sequence of measurements to be specified that will be replayed during firmware boot.


TPMs contain memory locations called Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs). Each PCR contains the hash for a type of code and/or data loaded during the boot such as firmware code on the non-volatile storage device (for example, SPI flash), option ROMs from PCI devices, or the OS boot loader. The size of a value that can be stored in a PCR is determined by the digest size of the hashing algorithm supported. For example, a SHA-1 PCR can store 20 bytes while a SHA-2 PCR can store 32 bytes. Multiple PCRs associated with the same hashing algorithm are called a bank. The TCG PC Client TPM Profile Specification defines the inclusion of at least one PCR bank with 24 registers (i.e. 24 PCRs).

Per the TCG PC Client Platform Firmware Profile Specification, PCRs contain measurements for different types of data or code. PCRs [0-15] represent S-RTM content. PCRs [0-7] are used for platform firmware, PCRs [8-15] are used for the operating system, and PCRs [16-23] are used for debug, D-RTM, and applications. Since this is a firmware feature, only extending PCRs [0-7] are in scope.

Normally when a TPM is present, firmware components will update or extend the appropriate PCR as new code and data is loaded in the boot process. The extend process updates the PCR value to be the output from the hash algorithm using the current PCR value concatenated with the new code or data argument as input.


The result is that PCRs can be inspected after the boot process to determine what executed. The extend operation is the only method to modify a PCR value during boot This allows software in the operating system to understand if the boot process was different than previous boots. In a security sensitive environment, the operating system can be informed of the exact set of code measurements expected in certain PCRs to detect the execution of unexpected firmware code. Since the first 16 PCRs in a bank can only be reset by resetting the entire TPM, they are trusted, and the preferred location for storing important measurements in the TPM.

PCRs enable the TPM to serve as a Root of Trust for Storage (RTS) and Root of Trust for Reporting (RTR) while the host firmware acts as a Static Root of Trust for Measurement (S-RTM).

TCG Event Log

The event log is the information record of measurements made to PCRs by platform firmware. Every measurement made will be reflected in the event log in addition to some informational events that do not extend PCRs.

To simplify how to structure and manage measurement data, this feature accepts the measurements to replay in the form of TCG_PCR_EVENT2 structures. An exception is that the first event in the log may be a TCG_PCClientPCREvent structure which typically represents the Specification ID Version Event for backward compatibility with non-TPM 2.0 aware parsers.

[Optional] Structure: TCG_PCClientPCREvent

TCG_PCClientPCREvent Structure

Name Type Size Offset Description
pcrIndex UINT32 4 0 The index of the PCR register.
eventType UINT32 4 4 Must be an EV_NO_ACTION event.
digest BYTE[20] 20 8 Must be 20 bytes of 0x00.
eventDataSize UINT32 4 28 The size of the event in bytes.
event BYTE[eventDataSize] Variable 32 Must be a TCG_EfiSpecIdEvent data structure.

Structure: TCG_PCR_EVENT2

TCG_PCR_EVENT2 Structure

Name Type Size Offset Description
pcrIndex UINT32 4 0 The index of the PCR register.
eventType UINT32 4 4 The type of event.
digests TPML_DIGEST_VALUES Variable Variable A counted list of tagged digests for all active PCR banks.
eventSize UINT32 4 Variable The size of the event data in bytes.
event BYTE[eventSize] Variable Variable The event data.


Name Type Description
count UINT32 Number of digests in the digests array.
digests TPMT_HA[] Array of hash digest structures.

Structure: TPMT_HA

Name Type Description
algId UINT16 Selector of the hash contained in digest.
digest BYTE[] Digest. Size depends on algId.

Note that integers are stored in the event log in little-endian and that the TPM2_PCR_EVENT and TPM_PCR_Extend commands operate on big-endian integer values. For example, a TPML_DIGEST_VALUES structure returned from TPM2_PCR_Event would be encoded in big-endian and, in particular, the count and AlgID fields would need to be converted to little-endian before being added to the event log.

TPM Replay Event Log Format

The actual format consumed by this feature is documented below. Note that the TCG Event Log information described above is a subset of the complete TPM Replay Event Log structure.

Name Type Size Offset Description
Signature UINT64 4 0 The structure signature - _TPMRPL_.
Revision UINT32 4 4 The structure revision.
Timestamp EFI_TIME 16 8 A timestamp of the time the contained event log was produced.
StructureSize UINT32 4 24 The size of the total payload (including event data) in bytes.
FinalPcrCount UINT32 4 28 The number of PCRs in the FinalPcrs array.
OffsetToFinalPcrs UINT32 4 32 The offset, in bytes, to the FinalPcrs array.
EventLogCount UINT32 4 36 The number of entries in the EventLog array.
OffsetToEventLog UINT32 4 40 The offset, in bytes, to the EventLog array.

Timestamp is only used for informational purposes at this time and the value does not matter to the TPM replay event log feature.

Revision field details:

  • Considering the mask: 0xAAAABBCC
  • For now, AAAA should be considered reserved, but may eventually encode non-structural information such as signature type or signature digest size.
  • BB is the major structure number.
  • CC is the minor structure number.
  • Any change to the structure that would still be parseable by existing code (e.g. adding new fields at the end) should result in an update to the minor number.
  • Any change that would break backwards compatibility with older parsing code (e.g. removing the FinalPcrs field and all related fields) should result in an update to the major number.

The following fields immediately proceed the above header structure and are of variable size.

Name Type Size Offset Description
FinalPcrs CALCULATED_PCR_STATE[FinalPcrCount] Variable 0 An array of the final PCR value expected.
EventLog TCG_PCR_EVENT2[EventLogCount] Variable Variable The event data.

FinalPcrs is optional. If not used, FinalPcrCount and OffsetToFinalPcrs should both be set to 0 and the structure should not be present. If these conditions, are not met, validation errors will be raised accordingly.

Where CALCULATED_PCR_STATE is defined as follows:

Name Type Size Offset Description
PcrIndex UINT32 4 0 The PCR index.
Digests TPML_DIGEST_VALUES Variable Variable A count and array of digests.

TCG PCRs Supported

As previously noted, only PCRs [0-7] are within the scope of this feature. In order to cleanly replay a given sequence of measurements, both the event type must be understood by this feature and the host firmware must be configured to prevent its own measurements that would interfere with the final event log on the system.

At this time, the following PCRs are supported:

  • 0: S-RTM, Host Firmware, Embedded Option ROMs, etc.
  • 1: Host platform configuration
  • 2: UEFI driver and application code
  • 3: UEFI driver and application configuration data
  • 4: UEFI Boot Manager code and Boot Attempts
  • 5: Boot manager code and configuration data (for use by a boot manager)
  • 6: Host-platform manufacturer specific (often unused)
  • 7: Secure Boot Policy and Secure Boot Verification Authority

If a given replay log contains unsupported PCR or event type, a warning will be displayed noting that it was skipped. A warning is chosen over a hard error to reduce log preparation time needed to use the replay feature.

Locality Restriction

Locality is a hardware addressing mechanism used to establish a trusted path between user and a TPM. By restricting the addresses accessible to hardware components, locality can provide proof of the initiating (i.e. source) component's identity. Because locality is dependent on addressing hardware to segregate the TPM communication channel, it's support varies across virtual and physical platforms.

For example, QEMU only supports Locality 0 on its CRB interface.

Due to varying levels of platform support, this feature currently only supports the default locality, Locality 0 (0xFED4_0XXX) which is typically used by the platform boot firmware (where TPM Replay is located). A StartupLocality event will appear in the TCG event log but not impact the actual PCRs on a platform.

TCG Event Log Input Channels

There's currently three ways to supply a replay event log:

  1. UEFI Variable
  2. QEMU Firmware Configuration Device (fw_cfg)
  3. RAW file included in the firmware build

For all the input channels available, the TPM replay event log data must match the structure described in section TPM Replay Event Log Format.

TCG Event Log Input Channel Order of Precedence

Only one channel may be used at a time. The following descending order of precedence is used for the channels currently defined:

  1. UEFI variable
  2. QEMU Firmware Configuration Device (fw_cfg)
  3. RAW file included in the firmware build

For example, if a RAW file is included in the firmware, it will be used by default. If a UEFI variable is set, the TPM replay event log in the variable will be used instead of the RAW file until the variable is removed.

Input Channel: UEFI Variable

UEFI variables associate data (the TPM replay event log in this case) with a GUID/name pair. The UEFI variable can be created, modified, and deleted per the UEFI Specification.

  • Input Environment:
  • EFI Shell or OS Running the Firmware with TPM Replay.
  • Requirements:
  • Platform support for non-volatile UEFI variables.
  • Maximum Size:
  • Platform Dependent. Assume 32KB.
  • User Flow:
  • Boot to EFI shell or OS and set the TpmReplayEventLog UEFI variable
  • Reset the system
  • All future boots will replay the values in the UEFI variable until it is deleted

Variable Information

  • Name: TpmReplayEventLog
  • Vendor GUID: {C6D186FF-D248-48F3-BB9A-D91103BBDD63}

Input Channel: fw_cfg

The Firmware Configuration (fw_cfg) device is a hardware interface available on QEMU that allows the guest firmware to retrieve various data items. The plan is to use this interface to allow the TPM replay event log to be passed from the host when it instantiates the QEMU session.

  • Input Environment:
  • Host OS on command line when launching QEMU.
  • Requirements:
  • QEMU v5.1+
  • Linux host (to support QEMU TPM backends)
  • A TPM backend (passthrough or swtpm)
    • Note: This feature has only been tested with swtpm
  • Maximum Size:
  • The firmware will accept up to 1MB of data.
  • User Flow:
  • Update the QEMU parameters per the examples below to point to a file or a full event log string
  • Launch the system
    • The launch will immediately replay the values passed on the command-line.

QEMU Command-Line Information: TPM Replay Event Log file

A file containing the TCG replay event log can be passed as a command line parameter:

-fw_cfg [name=]<item_name>,file=<path>

A string containing the TCG replay event log can be passed as a command line parameter:

-fw_cfg [name=]<item_name>,string=<string>

The <item_name> is opt/

QEMU Command-Line Information: swtpm Enabling

The following command will enable swtpm and save a log with TPM interactions to a file called tpm.log.

    "--tpmstate", "dir=/tmp/mytpm1/tpm",
    "--ctrl", "type=unixio,path=/tmp/mytpm1/swtpm-sock",
    "--log", "file=/tmp/mytpm1/tpm/tpm.log,level=20"]

Input Channel: RAW Firmware File

A RAW file is mostly targeted at firmware developer scenarios as it requires the firmware to be built with the TPM replay event log included.

The first RAW section found in the FFS file with the specified GUID will be used as the TPM replay event log.

  • Input Environment:
  • Source code during firmware build.
  • Requirements:
  • Source access and ability to build UEFI firmware.
  • Maximum Size:
  • The firmware will accept up to 1MB of data.
  • User Flow:
  • Update the platform firmware FDF file to include the FFS file with a RAW section containing the TPM replay event log.
  • Flash the firmware on the system.
  • The boot will replay the entries from the log in the RAW file.

Adding the Event Log to the Firmware

The FFS file GUID must be: {C6D186FF-D248-48F3-BB9A-D91103BBDD63}.

Here's an example of how to adjust the log used in the platform FDF file:

  FILE FREEFORM = C6D186FF-D248-48F3-BB9A-D91103BBDD63 {
    SECTION RAW = Path/TpmReplayEventLog.bin

TPM Replay Event Log Tool

A cross-platform Python tool is provided to construct TPM replay event logs. The tool supports the following capabilities:

  • Creation of the binary file needed by firmware for TPM replay from a JSON or YAML file that describes the measurements to perform.
  • Creation of a YAML file from a given binary that describes the measurements in the binary event log.
  • Generation of a text report detailing the measurements in a given binary or YAML file (i.e. -l and -v options).
  • Breakdown of UEFI variable data in events that represent UEFI variables.
  • Decoding of "crypto agile event logs" as described in the TCG PC Client Platform Firmware Profile Specification. This includes the log produced by Windows (usually present in the C:\Windows\Logs\MeasuredBoot directory).